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58 Cards in this Set

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Ghadar Party (10/2)
-A revolutionary party
-Brave soldiers to stir up India in 1913
-Headquarters in San Francisco
-Had a newsletter and printing press
-Kept their newspaper secret (underground press)
-A flyer from the archive claimed 400 Indians fighting for independence were hanged during 1915 and 1916
-Ghadar party lasted until 1947
Hawaiian Sovereignty
-Migration to Hawaii
oSugar Plantations
Starved by Westerners/Americans
1778 was when Hawaii was discovered by Cook
1st plantation: started by William Gouper/Hooper?
Hawaiians didn’t want to work on these plantations
oContract labor
1885-94: 30,000
3 yrs, 26 days/month
10-12 hours/day
30 cents a day ($9/month)
Japan was concerned in sending workers to Hawaii
-Alien worked with U.S. merchant David Deschler to recruit sugar plantation workers
-Single men and families
-10% women, 8% children
Komogata Maru
-A Japanese ship
oGurdit Singh, a business man based in Singapore
Took 36 passenger to Vancouver port
May 23, 1914
All Asian Indian veterans of British Army
•Thought they had the right to settle anywhere in British land
o200 fully armed militia on the shore forced he Komagata Maru back home
Went to Calcutta but people/government of Calcutta wanted them to go back to Punjab
oGurdit Singh is forced into hiding
oGandhi convinces him to go to prison instead of running and hiding
oInspiration to the Anti-Colonialism movement in India
-You could not enter Canada unless through a continuous journey
 trying toe exclude Indians from entering Canada
Japanese Colonialism
???
Transnationalism
-Pride/Identification of your origin/place of citizenship
-Or a nation trying to instill a sense of pride within the citizens
-Having pride for more than one place
-Mary Paik Lee
oUnderstanding the Korean community in the U.S. prior to WW2
Mary Paik Lee
-Author of Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America
Conversion to Christianity
??
U.S.-Philippine War (10/9)
-February 14, 1899: Congress ratifies Treaty of Paris by 2 votes
oFilipino independence resolution fails by one vote
oSharp debate about “imperialism” among Americans
-Filipinos fight guerilla war for independence
oU.S. calls conflict the “Philippine Insurrection”
-Violent fighting and fierce resistance
oBoth sides employed torture
oUp to 250,000 Filipinos died
oMany U.S. soldiers disillusioned, Blacks defected
-War from 1899 – 1902+
“Colonial education”
-Exported West central views
-U.S. colonization of the Philippines
-U.S. promise of freedom; different from Europe
-U.S. exports American culture
-Tydings-McDuffie Act
-Carlos Bulosan - America is in the heart
-Phillip Vera Cruz - The fall of the I-hotel
Tydings-Mcduffie Act
-1934
-Promised “independence” to Philippines in 10 years
-Immediately restricted immigration to quota of 50
-1935 Repatriation Act: U.S. paid Filipinos for one-way ticket to Philippians
oOnly 2,200 went
Philip Vera Cruz
-Filipino-American labor leader, farm worker, and leader in the Asian-American civil rights movement.
-Co-founder of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, which later merged with the National Farm Workers Association to become the United Farm Workers.
United Farm Workers
- Labor union that evolved from unions founded by Cesar Chavez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union changed from a workers’ rights organizations that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of the union of farm workers almost overnight, when the National Farm Workers Association went out on strike in support of the mostly Filipino farm workers of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee.
Japanese American Citizens League
-Believed that the best way for Japanese Americans to prove their worthiness in the eyes of Euro-Americans was to be totally loyal to American ideals
-Successful obtained naturalization rights for some 500 Issei veterans of WWI and helped to get the Cable Act.
oReversed previous U.S. federal law where women lost their U.S. citizenship if they married a foreign man because she assumes citizenship of her husband.
-Would even go as far as turning in pro-Japan Issei to FBI
-Lobbied hard to get an Evacuation Claims Act passed in 1948
oAt the end of more than a decade of litigation, a token 137 claims were settled, averaging $450 each.
oWon a more significant victory
– the inclusion of a clause in the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act to allow Issei to be naturalized and to grant Japanese an immigration quota of 185 persons a year
oLed efforts to remove a number of discriminatory laws: in 1948 the U.S. Supreme Court struck down one that had denied commercial fishing licenses to Japan, while in 1956 California voters repealed all the alien land laws.
World War II
-The U.S. and Philippines had a close relationship until WWII
-During WWII, the U.S. was trying to find all Asian Allies to fight against Japan
-Chinese exclusion act was abolished after WWII
-Ends in the 1940s
-Roots of WWII: China
oU.S. “Open Door” policy (1899)
States nobody should colonize China, everyone has equal access to trade w/ China
Britain, Germany, Russia, and France claimed “spheres of influence” over China
U.S. upholds China’s self-rule, asserts “free trade”
oJapan: Eastern version of “Monroe Doctrine”
Seeks “level playing field” in East Asia
Basic protection of sovereignty
Rise of aggressive nationalism in 1930s
•Invasion of Manchuria (1931)
•All-out war with China (1937)
•Pearl Harbor (1941)
Japanese American internment (10/23)
-Role of racist ideas in establishing rationale for Mass Internment
-Underlying structures of Japanese American Disenfranchisement
-Legal/Political Rational for Internment
-Conditions of Life Behind Barbed Wire
-Cooperation or Resistance? Response of Japanese American
-Alternatives to Internment?
oInternment basis of “nationality” (“enemy aliens”
Issei denied right to become U.S. citizens
oMartial law
oCurfews and restrictions on mobility
oInvestigate actual classes of sabotage and “fifth column activity”
-Arguments for Internment
oHold Japanese American as “hostages” for every one American prisoner of war in Japan
oPressure Groups and Economic Interest
o“Evidence” of Subversive Activity
oGeneral John L. DeWitt
Said he can’t tell difference between loyal and disloyal Japanese
“Jap is a Jap”
oPolitical Opportunism
oFocus on Nisei
442nd Regiment (10/25)
- all Nisei
- a change in government policy
- January 1943
o The war department announced it was forming an all Nisei combat team
o Most decorated group
- Vosque Mountain
- “Go for Broke”
- General Dahlquist
Heart Mountain fair Play Committee (p. 133-134)
-Formed by Kiyoshi Okamoto, a Nisei from Hawaii
-The Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee Statement
oNisei did not think that they had to register for the draft
oBelieved that they were treated without due process of the law
oThose in contrast with the Committee eagerly grasped the chance to offer their military service to prove to their loyalty to the country (United States)
Korematsu v. U.S.
-Supreme court and government needs to defer to the military when involving war
-Malkin’s arguments
oFavors “racial profiling” but does not call for internment
oNeed to defer to “military necessity” during times of war
-Question prioritization of civil liberties
-United States Supreme Court case which asked the question, “Did the President and Congress go beyond their war powers by implementing exclusion and restricting the rights of Americans of Japanese descent?
oCourt sided with government ruling that the exclusion order leading to Japanese American Internment was not unconstitutional
War Brides
-White service men marrying Japanese women
Cold War
-Late 40s – 60s, during the same time as the Civil Rights Movement
-Impact on Asians in America
oAsians accused of being Communist
oLead to an okay for Asian citizenship
oLead to a boost for technological efforts/need
Bring in more skilled/educated people to U.S.
1965 immigration act
•Throws out quotas and allows more Asians to come
•Equal opportunity for all immigrants
•Puts a preference in for those who are educated and have skills
oDon’t need as many people to work in factories & farms
-U.S. cold War Foreign Policy - Nuclear Arms race
oDeterrence and Containment
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
oEconomic hegemony and “free trade” policies
oMarshall Plan, World Bank & foreign aid
Designed to win allies and stem Communism
Also seek to spur demand for American goods
oInternational Monetary Fund
Makes U.S. dollar global monetary standard
-Asian American and Cold War Politics (50s)
oChina: switch from Ally to Enemy of U.S.
oJapan: switch from Enemy to Ally of U.S.
oPhilippines: colonialism to neo-colonialism
oKorea: Japanese colony to divided nation
oIndia: British colony to non-aligned nation
oVietnam: Japanese occupation to French colony
• Anti-communism
oThe red scare of the fifties and sixties created distrust for Chinese Americans.
oBecause Chinese forces intercepted American forces in their attempt to unify the two Koreas.
oChinese Americans in the US were labeled with suspicion much like Japanese Americans during WWII
oIn 1950 the McCarren Internal Security act allowed government to legally detain suspected communists
oThis saw the rise of anti-communist Chinese American organizations which promoted Chinese image of anti-communist in the US
• McCarran-Walter Act (1952)
oAmerican is the leader of the free world after World War 2. This lead America to rethink a lot of its former strategies regarding race and immigration and naturalization.
oThe act was significant because it was the first time that the US government said that everyone could be a citizen regardless of race, but it kept the race based quota system.
oFor many Asian nations, it kept immigration at 2000 people a year.
oAlthough the act made many Asians “equals” in applying for citizenship, it reinforced race based selection in immigration
• Korean War
oKim Il-Sung, the leader of North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950
oUS troops were sent as part of a UN peace keeping force
oIt was part of America’s containment policy
oAfter the war, a big wave of Korean immigration started
oAfter the war many Koreans came as nurse because the United States needed such occupation. Some women came as brides of GIs under the war brides act. Many war orphans were adopted to the United States.
• Jawaharalal Nehru
o He was a senior political leader of the Indian National Congress, was a pivotal figure during the Indian independence movement and served as the first Prime Minister of the Republic of India. Ghandi’s was his mentor.
• 1965 Immigration Act
oThe act was intended to reunify separated families during World War II and bring skilled workers in to the united states
oMany thought this act would only benefit Europeans as Asians had no relatives in the united states, but they were wrong
oThis act tripled the incoming Asians in the United States following the passage of the act.
• Ho Chi Minh
oLeader of North Korea
oWanted to seek out US help for independence, but was rejected
Gook
o Derogatory term for Vietnamese Americans.
o Mentality of Americans regarding Asians as a faceless enemy mass
scientific vs. common man
-thindconsidered Caucasian… but b/c he doesn’ tlook like it. common man wouldn’t’ see him as Caucasian.
1924
Immigration Act
-seeks to preserve “native stock” of America
-based on “National Origins” quotas
-only <150 Japan allowed in
-total exclusion of “aliens ineligible for citizenship”-no Asians
-new creation of the “illegal alien”-creation of the Border Patrol, promote deportation
-Deterioration of US-Japan Relations.
-Japan has “National Humiliation Day”-Americans are not our friends
-Americans don’t’ want us.
-if you marry an immigrant, you will lose your own citizenship
- Limited any immigrants who could be admitted to 2% of the number of that ethnicity living in the US during 1890. Tried to restrict S.E Europeans and AZNS. Did not set limits on latino. Repealed 1965
Significance: really starting to crack down on illegal immigrants. Start of the policies against illegal immigrants. Really broke a lot of relationships through this act.
Chinese exclusion act
First excluded new Chinese from US for 10 years but then renewed in 1892 by Geary act then 1902 with no end in sight. Finally repealed in 1943 by Magnuson act. Quota of 105 . repealed again in 1986. Aimed at stoping Chinese laborers from coming to the US.
Komagata Maru: 1914
Jap steamship sailed from HK to yokohama to Vancouver Ca eh. carried Indians which were british subjects. Cuz Canada was under british rule. Could not exclude Indians since they were part of the Brit empire, but they blocked it by requiring a continuous journey across water and have at least 2 ben franklins with them.
Philippines u.s war. 1899-1913
Ok will try to make short. Fillipino were fighting against spain since 1896. us defeated spain in Spanish American war. U.s then bought Philippians for 20 mil. Officially fighting ended 1901 cuz us defeated the Filipino army, but like iraq resistance continued
- February 14, 1899: Congress ratifies Treaty of Paris by 2 votes
o Filipino independence resolution fails by one vote
o Sharp debate about “imperialism” among Americans
- Filipinos fight guerilla war for independence
o U.S. calls conflict the “Philippine Insurrection”
- Violent fighting and fierce resistance
o Both sides employed torture
o Up to 250,000 Filipinos died
o Many U.S. soldiers disillusioned, Blacks defected
- War from 1899 – 1902+
.
*Tydings McDuffie act 1934
- Proclaimed self gov of Philippines from US after 10 years. All Filipino immigrants became aliens in the us . no longer allowed to work legally. Quota of 50 per year. Independence delayed til 1946 cuz of Japanese war. 1934
- Promised “independence” to Philippines in 10 years
- Immediately restricted immigration to quota of 50
- 1935 Repatriation Act: U.S. paid Filipinos for one-way ticket to Philippians
o Only 2,200 went
Ho Chi Min
Was a Vietnamese revolutionary who later became Prime Minister (1946–1955) and President (1955–1969) of North Vietnam. Led Viet Minh independence movement in 1941 and establishing communist control in part of Vietnam in the 1950s.
Mai Lai Massacre
- huge cover-up regarding the killings of a village of around 300 unarmed women and children in the Vietnam War. Covered up as a military victory.
“Fall of Saigon” ->
Vietnamese. When US fell out. Communism took over Saigon. Fall of Saigon was during the pull out
Hmong Culture and Identityh
The Hmong are a minority ethnic group of Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and southern China. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace, because there are no written records. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Throughout the centuries, the Hmong have remained identifiable as Hmong, because they have maintained their own language, customs, and ways of life while adopting the ways of the country in which they live. As a result of the upheavals in Southeast Asia in the 1970's, many Hmong have left their lands, mainly Laos, and resettled in other countries as refugees.
 Man's duty involves family leadership and the provision for the physical and spiritual welfare of his family. Husbands have authority over wives and make major decisions regarding family affairs.
 Hmong women are responsible for nurturing the children, preparing meals, feeding animals, and sharing in agricultural labor. Regarding childbirth, Hmong women traditionally consider it normal to work up until the day of delivery.
 The shaman is the spiritual leader in the Hmong community. People do not choose to become shamans; they must have a calling. It is considered an honor to be a shaman.
 During the New Year's celebration, Hmong dress in traditional clothing and enjoy Hmong traditional foods, dance, music, bull fights, and other forms of entertainment. Hmong New Year celebrations preserve Hmong ethnic traditions and culture, and may also serve to educate those who have interest in Hmong tradition.
 During the Hmong New Year celebration, the Hmong ball tossing game (pov pob) is a common activity for adolescents.
Black Power Mvt- helped galvanize others resisting assimilation, after a period of wanting to assimilate. You don’t feel inferior because you are a minority in a majority culture. Yuri Kuchiyama

Third World Liberation Front-Led the 2 longest and most costly strikes in California state history in SF State and UC Berkeley. It was a college grassroots movement that focused on getting ethnic studies.

Asian American Studies-Came from strikes in the 1960’s led by third world liberation front. Right inline with new Pan-Asian American identity. See third world liberation front.

Yuri Kockiyama-born 1921 was a grassroots civil rights activist who has involved herself in a wide range of issues from international political prisoner rights, nuclear disarmament, and Japanese redress for World War II internment.
Black Power Mvt
 In the 1940s Yuri Kochiyama and her family were one of the many Japanese Americans to be sent to internment camps following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Several years later she saw many similarities between how the Japanese had been treated in the camps and how many minority groups, especially blacks, were treated in the U.S. at the time. For more than sixty years afterwards Yuri Kochiyama has been an enthusiastic activist and a key supporter of many civil rights groups: Black Panther, YLP. Perhaps most famously, Yuri Kochiyama was a close friend and associate of Malcolm X, and was by his side at his assassination in 1965.
Third World Liberation Front
Led the 2 longest and most costly strikes in California state history in SF State and UC Berkeley. It was a college grassroots movement that focused on getting ethnic studies.
Asian American Studies
Came from strikes in the 1960’s led by third world liberation front. Right inline with new Pan-Asian American identity. See third world liberation front.
Yuri Kockiyama-born 1921
was a grassroots civil rights activist who has involved herself in a wide range of issues from international political prisoner rights, nuclear disarmament, and Japanese redress for World War II internment.
 In the 1940s Yuri Kochiyama and her family were one of the many Japanese Americans to be sent to internment camps following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Several years later she saw many similarities between how the Japanese had been treated in the camps and how many minority groups, especially blacks, were treated in the U.S. at the time. For more than sixty years afterwards Yuri Kochiyama has been an enthusiastic activist and a key supporter of many civil rights groups: Black Panther, YLP. Perhaps most famously, Yuri Kochiyama was a close friend and associate of Malcolm X, and was by his side at his assassination in 1965.
I Hotel-
these ppl weren’t able to have many social services or raise families. Often 1st generation ppl who end up alone by themselves. This was the last thing left for their culture. Represents this untold story of early AA immigratnts (Manong). A quest for fairness for low income housing residents. They attained solidarity w/ all who sought social justice
Gay Pride Liberation
some AA organizations were not tolerant of homosexuality, as a result some AA queer activists emphized their racil id. Racial sterotypes are rampant in white gay community. AA played an increased role in the rise of gay politics in the US in the 80’s and 90’sGay Pride Liberation
Angela Oh
(she was the women who was intereviewed on night line) She is Korean and was vocal in addressing the issues and faults of the Bush administraioin as well as saying that Koreans and Blacks don’t have beef. Angela E. Oh is an attorney, teacher, and public lecturer In June 1997, she was appointed by President Bill Clinton to the President’s Initiative on Race. She served as part of a seven-member Advisory Board to the President in an effort directed at examining how race, racism, and racial differences have affected the United States
Dinesh D’ Souza
D'Souza's argument that institutionalized racism doesn't exist in modern American society has stirred controversy among those who oppose this view. D'Souza is a noted conservative, and defines conservatism in the American sense as "conserving the principles of the American Revolution".
Grace Lee Boggs
she hung out and did a lot of organizing with the African American Movement. She was doing this in the 1930’s a period that predated major Asian American movements, save general.
 Is an author, lifelong anti-racist activist and feminist. Lee became involved in the black power movement and
 was a founding member of Detroit's Asian Political Alliance. She has since continued her work as a writer, speaker, and civil rights activist.
International adoption
ovie, dual identities, Korea was the largest country that exported children for adoption. It started in Korea after the high amount of orphan children of the Korean War. Later families put children up for adoption to places like the US and Europe to not only give them a better life but to help the burdens of Korean households. Can be viewed as almost being a business, families sponsored children
Hapa-identity
bi-racial Asian Americans, most try to assert their Asian background.
 Taboos and legal restrictions break down post WWII w/ interracial marriage allowed—the Marlon Brando Film Sionara,
Conversion to Christianity
Koreans/ Chinese converted to assimiliate. Different perception of asian race. Laotion people-> obligated to come b/c they helped; Hawaiian people converted to christaintity b/c when white people came they brought disease w/ them. White people’s god was more powerful than their god, so they converted.
- Containment vs. Integration
-supporting countries w/ dictators
-integrate minorities
-containtment: US using policies and spheres to contain communism.
-integration: US using influence to protect regimes that weren’t communist.
-US influences S. Korea with its culture to eliminate possibilities of communism.
• Vietnam War
o The United States wanted to stem communism as part of their containment policy. When France pulled out of Vietnam, the US pulled in.
o It opened an era of protest for American youths, it also opened an era for minorities in America to address change in society
• “Gook”
o Derogatory term for Vietnamese Americans.
o Mentality of Americans regarding Asians as a faceless enemy mass
o Can be for model minorityb/c stealing jobs and
• My Lai massacre
o Vietnam war. 300 people died (unarmed), covered up, said it as a military victory. Even famous politicians like John Kerry talk about. It. Could happen on Vietnam.
• Rockford, IL
Laos new clothes, living off our welfare.
• Third World Liberation Front
Set up new asian programs at schools like SF state and Berkeley. Third wolrd libaeration front to get programs on campuses. “name”
Third World is India-> threaten nuclear holocaust; socialist, neutrality->India
• Dinesh D’Souza
Writes for the republicans. Heritage foundation. Replublicans want to connect with Asians. Conservative Indian writer. Pitting black people against Asians. Makes Asians the coolest, put up Asians on pedestals.
• Hapa” Idetntity
Bi-racial. Transnationalism. Finding the identity of asisan Americans.. half asian +other ethnicities. ; really tried to assert their asiannes.. instead of white.
• Chinatown and the “Ethnic Economy”
Thriving on themselves. Discriminating against each other. Cantonese vs. fujinese people. Fujinese people were the bad ones and lazy