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215 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
name the events that happened right before the reconstruction (1865-76) of the south.
* civil war ended in 1865 and the south seceded.
* congress passed 13th amendment in 1865; amendment was to end slavery
* war meant the end of a rebellion; did not end slavery
* confederacy made by the south.
why did the south have to be reconstructed?
*because there was damage such as ruined roads, burnt down plantations...
who was president during the reconstruction period?
andrew johnson (1865-68)
describe him.
*was VP when lincoln was president
* only pres. who didn't attend school; taught himself who to read & write.
* was a small farmer
* wasn't a good pres.; only reason why he got into office was bc pres. got assasinated.
what was johnson's idea for reconstruction?
* all white male southerners who wanted to vote should take loyalty oath to union.
* if white male was a top confed. officer or top plantation owner, he was to ask johnson for a pardon in person.
* johnson for state's rts; left states to decide on things such as blacks and voting.
why was johnson's idea rediculous?
*bc the white southerners wanted to make everything the same except they didn't call the blacks, slaves anymore.
*they made up black codes
in 1866, what was reconstruction like?
it seemed like the southerners were going to go back to how things were before the war
where was congress during johnson's plan?
*they went home after the war
*in late 1866, they acted as congressmen and they despised johnson's ideas!
what was the result of johnson's plan?
* it did not go through since congress and some strong leaders known as radical republicans
what political party seemed to be running things in office? also name the two main ppl.
*the radical repubs.
*charles sumner: senator from MA
*thaddeus stevens: house of rep; had the idea that blacks should be treated as equals.
what did these two men do to johnson's plan?
since they were both opposed to the blk. codes, they stopped it.
name the two stage plan they made.
they wanted to make a constitutional amendment so they decided that it needed to get the job done fast & make sure plan will last for a long time
what four points were made in the 14th amendement?
* all citizens will have due process of law which means protection of the law.
* permission to vote and representation in congress.
* rebels can't hold political office
* union war debts were to be paid, not confederate war debts.
what was the purpose of due process of law? also, define it.
it was to lock down black codes and due process means a reason to be arrested.
go into detail about the second point of the 14th amend (permission to vote and repres. in cong.)
* all males should be allowed to vote
* it's not manditory but a privledge
* women hated this bc the word 'male' is mentioned in const. for the first time
go into detail about the 3rd point of the 14 amend. (rebels can't hold office..)
* can't hold offices UNLESS congress gives permission
* in 1872, congress passed amnesty act which ended this part of the constit.
what law was passed in 1867? name the two things that it did.
the military reconstruction act;
established five military districts in south and created new constit; couldn't elect any rebel southerners to office and males had the right to vote
name the 2nd and 3rd laws that were passed in 1867 and give the purpose of both.
* command of the army act and the tenure of office act
* purpose of both acts were to cut off some power from the pres.
* tenure act was to keep johnson from changing officials
* this act needed approval of congress if he ever wanted to change officials
describe the little drama that went between, johnson, edwin stanton, and congress.
*edwin stanton was the secretary of war and johnson wanted to dimiss him but congress said he wasn't allowed to do such a thing since the tenure act had already come into play.
* according to congress, johnson violated act so therefore they wanted to put him on trial.
name the two things congress wanted to put johnson on trial for.
* violated the tenure office act
* his actions made congress look bad.
what was the result of this trial?
congress fell one vote short so johsnon was aquited. therefore, he was still in office and finished out his term...
describe the elections of 1868 & 1872.
* ulysses s. grant was commander in general in civ. war.
* in 2nd election, he beat horace greeley (editor of the tribune; advice giver and told ppl "go west, my friend")
* grant's presidency was known as the "great bbq"
describe the 15th amendment.
*makes it illegal for states to block the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude (slavery).
what did the states do about the 15th amendment?
they went around it and made it hard for illiterate ppl to vote since they were forced to take a literacy test; a poll tax and the grandfather clause (if grandfather didn't vote, you can't either) was also enforced
when did the US supreme court outlaw the grandfather clause?
what was the result of the 15th amendment?
* 14 ppl of color in south were elected in the HOR.
* 2 elected into senate
* no blacks were gov. cept in LA
who was warmoth?
a LA gov. that was convicted
who was lt. gov. pinchback?
served as gov for one month.
what anti-black terriorist group was formed?
ku klux klan; founded in 1867
what did they do?
*they terrorized blacks and the whites who helped the blacks.
*attacked blks bc they just didn't like them, attacked whites who helped the blks.
name the two kinds of people who helped the blacks.
*northerners= carpetbaggers; white northherners who traveled with a suitcase made of carpet material.
*southerners= scalawagers
what was the KKK act of 1871?
*if KKK member got arrested, they were charged with violating a person's civil rts and they were violating amendments.
*they were to be tried in a federal court.
what was happening in the 1870s?
*war ended 5-6 yrs ago.
*ppl getting weary of war; started to wonder if reconstruction was really going to work.
Freedemen's Bureau of 1865.
helped ex-slaves; gave them food, helped them to become literate; this act ended in 1872.
Amnesty Act of 1872
*gave pardons to everyone who fought on the confed.
*had the rt. to vote and could become full citizens
panic of 1873.
*lots of banks shut down
*econ. in bad shape
*native americans and white ppl had rivalries
*labore union protests galore.
election of 1876.
*rep. party won (rutherford hayes)
why was the election of 1876 controversial?
*there was a voting irregularity
what did the south democrats want to do to the south?
they wanted to run it themselves
what did hayes do to the union troops?
he withdrew them from the south and ended reconstruction in 1877
what legacy lived on after reconst.?
*the legacy of slavery lived on; prejudice injustice remained in the south.
*segregation occured
*when slavery ended, the status of question fell on everyone.
what does jim crow mean?
what was happening to the poor in the south?
*there were very little programs for the poor
*illiteracy rates were high
what is a sharecropper?
it means sharing the profits for crops.
who owned most of the land after the civil war?
the whites.
but why couldnt some whites buy land?
bc some were poor
what contract did the landowner make with the poor?
he would get them to work the land; half of the money would go to worker, other half would go to the landowner.
__% of land in LA was cultivated by sharecroping.
what was the problem with sharecropping?
it can't happen if there are no seeds...
what was the crop lien system?
person would go to landowner to ask for seeds/tools or storekeeper and make arrangements for credit.
what was the problem with the crop lien system?
the workers would start out in debt but once paid, they pay what they bought back; if can't pay, they keep working until they can..kinda like slavery...hmm.
Plessy vs. Ferguson.
1896; US supreme court upheld the 'separate but equal' principle; case was about transportation; in reality facilities were not made equally; case overturned in 1954 with Brown vs. Board of Edu.
what do some say about the civil war?
they said that the west caused it bc they didn't know if west was going to be slave or nonslave states.
what was not a big deal in the west?
who founded the west/
anglos and euro. amer. came in the west as well.
why did they blacks come to the west?
bc they left the south since reconstruction ended and jim crow laws were taking affect.
who were the exodusters?
african americans who pushed west to get away from south.
___% of cattledrive cowboys were black.
who were the buffalo soldiers?
blacks in the military (cavalry); helped US in wars against indians.
where did the mexicans live?
in the SW such as AZ,CA,etc.; granted full citizenship after the mexican-am. war (one with polk)
when did the chinese americans come to the states?
when the gold rush was happening in CA
who came before everyone else and was already well-established?
the native ams...they were divided into many different tribes.
what did congress pass in 1862?
the homestead act
why was this passed?
bc the russians/euros wanted native american territory in the west.
what rules were in the homestead act?
160 acres of land offered to anyone who:
*cultivated the land for five years, then filed land claim
*or cultivated land for six months then pay $1.25 per acre.
*offer made to both sexes.
what did james oliver invent?
the iron 'sod-buster' plow in 1868
what did joseph glidden invent?
barbed wire in 1873
what did congressman Newlands make?
the newlands reclaimation act in 1901; was about irrigation.
what was the purpose of barbed wire?
to protect ppl's property such as water, animals, crops, and such..
who had disputes over land?
small & big ranches and cattle & sheep ranchers
who were the cattle ranchers?
anglos, euros., brit ppl
who were the sheep ranchers?
why did the cattle/sheep ranchers fight?
it was for ethnic reasons
Fence Cutters War in TX (1883-84)
large ranchers cut the wire in order to steal property such as cattle
name two outlaws of the west.
tom horn & john wesley hardin
what was the result of the fence cutters war?
territorial law made in tx where it was against the law of fence cutting.
___% of settlers were male, ___% were female.
in 1890, about ____ women were running/owning their own farms
esther morris
went to wyoming and had a ranch
what was the land called before anyone claimed it?
the wilderness
___ is land that ppl work on in order to have it as their official land.
___ is land that is owned officially.
what was granted in wyoming in 1869
women's suffrage.
what was women's suffrage also called?
from the top down which means granted by territorial legislature not through a grassroots movement.
esther became the first woman to ...??
assemble the peace; wyoming became a state in 1890 and women were allowed to vote there.
what happened in colorado in 1893?
women were allowed to vote there too.
carrie chapman catt
was involved in women's suffrage; organized popular 'grassroots' movement; she went to idaho and est. women's rt to vote there as well in 1896
what state permitted women to vote in 1896?
utah; state known for the amount of mormons in the state; allowed to vote so utah mormons can maintain their power
how did the homestead act affect the native ams.?
they were losing land bc whites took it from them
native ams were ___
communal = whole tribe cooperated in activities and lived together
semi-nomadic indians.
indians who took turns moving to diff. homes; wars started if a tribe accidentally stepped ft. in another indians' territory.
what was the religion of the native ams?
where was the apache tribe and name some important ppl that were in the tribe.
*geronimo = captured, escaped, and eventually died; did not want to settle
*new perce & chief joseph from idaho were defeated in the 1880s.
what were the sioux tribe also called and what land did they own?
also called the Lakota Sioux; SD, Montana, WY, and black hills
name two important chiefs of the sioux
crazy horse and sitting bull (1870s)
Little Big Horn River
settlement onside of river (1876); ppl decided to attack; custer and men wanted to attack the sioux; this battle is called custer's last stand or battle of little big horn...of course crazy horse and sitting bull were in fight.
what did the US supreme court in the 1880s declare with the native americans?
native ams on reservations were not citizens instead they were "wards" of federal gov.
congress passed a law called the ___ ___ ___ in 1887..what was the purpose of it?
Dawes Severalty Act; wanted to divide tribal lands and have private ownership instead; if kept it up for 25 years, the can become full citizens; sometimes native ams were forced to give up their lands by aggression or money; wanted to stop cummunal living
Bureau of Indian Affairs (1880s).
*all children on reservations got taken away and sent to boarding schools; tried to americanize them and if they got caught speaking their native language, they got punished.
*christianity was encouraged; native ams. did not have a say so in relighion; forced into being christians
*also told that they weren't citizens and it's not protected by the constitution.
what secret new religion was adopted in 1889?
the ghost dance religion
who was the holyman and who was he?
wokova; had a vision that everyone was going to die but native americans would be reborn and live like they did before the settlers came in.
*in order to make religion happen he said to go back to indian ways and if they did, they would be protected by bullets.
what was happening with the ghost dance religion?
the US army tried to put a stop to it and forbade it.
who was kicking bear?
part of the sioux tribe; wanted to fight with the white men immediately so the native americans can achieve their practice.
what happened in 1890?
tribes were called to gather
who was big foot?
part of sioux tribe; him and tribe tried to get to the meeting place but he was ill along with his other men...
what did big foot and his men set up?
a camp at wounded knee.
what did the soldiers want to do with the camp?
they wanted to disarm them and put them on reservations.
what ended up happening when they tried this?
one deaf man didn't know what was going on so when soldier asked to disarm; he went crazy and shot everyone..this was called the battle of wounded knee or the massacre in 1890.
what was the result of the battle?
most native americans ended up living in reservations; no battles after that.
what did the 1890 US census declare?
the frontier was gone. all land was claimed by somebody such as the gov., oil companies, farmers, etc.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
he proposed his "frontier thesis" which really defined the way america was developed; had a high abundance on land, animals, lots of things...
*his main point was that america had an abundance
what happened in the 1920s with the black hills?
a white man had an idea that he would carve a monument (mt. rushmore).
what did the black hills used to be?
indian territory but gold was found and they were forced to leave the lands.
what did industrialization do for ppl?
it changed the way ppl worked
what system did ppl go by before industrialization?
an apprenticeship.
why did the apprenticeship disappear?
transportation began to improve; used the technique of mass production; specialization of tasks also being used which lead to the division of labor; numerous ppl made stuff..not just one person. also, machines came into play.
after 1870, there was a rise in???
big business and labor: oil, steel, investment banking ( all major industries)
had the standard oil co.
Carnegie steel ; US steel
JP Morgan
company was JP Morgan and Co. (investment broker)
when there was intense competition, what would happen between the Cos.?
price wars
what was Rockefeller interested in to control price wars?
economic concentration and combination instead of intense competition; pools, trusts, and holding cos....types of agreements on wages, prices, quota, etc...
holding Cos
company that owns other Cos.
what are two ways to organize a holding co.?
horizontal and vertical integration
horizontal integration.
companys own the same kind of cos. in different locations
vertical integration.
control of production chain
social darwinism
"survival of the fittest" thomas huxly said this originally.
what are the two justifications of big business
social darwinism and philantropy
well-deserved mark of responsible, pwrful ppl
"laissez faire" let business alone -- no gov. interference
what were the two objections of social darwinism?
ppl not just brutes in the jungle and business happy to let govt. "interfere" with tax breaks, loons, etc.
what did rockefeller contribute?>
money to the univ. of chicago and rock. foundation
public libraries and carnegie hall, NYC
no charity
what objections are there?
*guilt money
*huge profits
*what about workers?
horatio algers
author of "rags to riches" "struggling upward"
what were some working problems?
*speeding up = rushed to make more stuff even though ppl lost limbs
*broken time = when boss called time ...such as 15 mins. before the hour ended and worker didn't get paid for the hr.
*blacklist = list that ppl are on if boss didn't approve of worker; couldn't get jobs anywhere else; had to move away.
name and describe the two types of immigrants.
* old wave = came to US up to 1890; came from Northern and Western Europe; English Irish, German, Scandinavians.
* new wave = 1890-1920s; southern and eastern europe; Italians, Jews, Slavs
why did these ppl want to come to america?
there was lots of trouble in euro. and in america there were job opportunities
where did most of them come from and what were their plans?
most came from rural areas; they had the idea that they were going to make money, then move west but most ended up staying
what was the problem the immigrants were facing in the city?
they attempted to raise livestock in the city; couldn't adjust to city life
what religion were the new wave ppl?
catholics and jewish
what did they see as a bad thing?
National Origins Act of 1924
it was to control the immigrants; applied to asians and euros since the WASPS were worried about these two groups the most.
what did this act do to the euros.?
they established quotas of 2 percent of nationality's population in 1890; this method was a way to manipulate immigration. in 1924, when labor work was reduced only a certain number of euros. can come in.
what did they do with the asians?
they cut off immigration with them all together.
what other group came to the US to work?
the mexicans
name the three models of assimilation
1. anglo-conformity ("strainer")
2. melting pot ("stew")
3. cultural pluralism ("salad"...meaning many cultures)
what was anglo-conformity? name the two stages
all immigrants should conform to anglo model.

* two stages:
1. behavioral assim. = wear am. clothes, conform to work schedule, buy am. products
2. structural assim. = enter the social and political structures of the US such as churches, clubs, etc.
what was the melting pot?
take all nationalities and melt them together; produce a new thing
cultural pluralism?
let each culture persist but all stick together.
first generation.
foreign born; cohort = grp of ppl who were there for the same events (9/11 attacks, JFK assasination)
second generation.
american born of foreign born parents
third gen.
american born with american born parents with foreign born g.paws
chain immigration
when an imm. resides in US for a specific reason
what was Remigration called
birds of passage
what did it mean?
returning to homeland; in 1880s, 20% went back to hms. and in 1910, 40% went back
*What time period did The Jungle take place?
*Where was the Rudkus family from?
*What kind of immigrants were they?
*Where did they go?
*Why did they go there?
*Early 1900s
*Lithuania (eastern europe)
*new wave because of where they're from and year they came.
*First NY, then Chicago
*Went to Chicago bc they knew a guy named Szedvilas who had settled there.
Who is Szedvilas?
*deli owner; followed the philosophy of horatio algers (rags to richies cept it was rags to respectability.)
How does the story first begin?
at a wedding reception located in the backroom of a saloon; it was jurgis and ona's wedding.
what kind of ppl were at the wedding and how was their behavior like towards america?
first and second generation ppl were there. they were going thru the behavioral stage of anglo-conformity.
Describe Jurgis's father.
Antanas was Jurgis's father. He was an elderly fellow who tried so hard to find a job; he finally does but he gets a kickback in his paychecks so he didn't get all of his salary. Shortly after that he got ill and died.
who was little antanas?
Jurgis's son; he dies as well bc he drowned in the mud in front of his house. neighborhood was in awful condition.
who was stanislovas?
he was the cousin; he helped carry beer for workers and one day he went down to a basement to keep warm and try the beer; he passed out and rats ate him.
who was Marija?
she was a cousin too; turns to prostitution and did drugs.
who was Ona?
Jurgis's wife; worked in a meat packing plant. Foreladys boss had a brothel and she had to be in it in order to keep her job; she turns out pregnant again and wasn't sure if jurgis, connor, or any of her customers were the baby's daddy.
who was the midwife?
Madame Haupt; tires to help Ona and the child but both die.
What was Chicago known for at this time?
It was the center of meatpacking industries (vertical integration); Durham and Co. and Jones and Co. were well known industries.
Who was Freddie Jones?
a drunk with tons of money since his father owned Jones and Co.; gave Jurgis $100 but he had it taken away when he went to go break his $100 by the saloonkeeper since he thought Jurgis stole the money.
Who was Mike Scully?
machine politician; had control over the meatpacking industries.
What did Pres. Teddy Roosevelt do after he read The Jungle?
He read the book in 1906 and when he was done, he told congress that all food needed to be checked; he passed the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
Explain what Roosevelt and the Reformers did.
*They were Progressives in 1900-1920.
*They wanted to fix the spoil system which was the idea of favors for political support.
*They wanted to perform a civil service which might eliminate the spoil sys.
What is pork-barreling?
the pork is the govt's money and goodies; the barrel has full of it and misuse of gov. funds.
illegal actions; crimes and kickbacks.

an example would be saloon keepers paying politians to keep quiet about illegal gambling or prostitution in the backroom.
Why did Jurgis join a union?
Because the industries were giving him problems; by this time he learned English so he could communicate with his fellow workers and stand up for himself.
What is a "yellow dog" contract?
when a person has to sign a contract saying that they cannot join a union.
What's a closed shop?
it's a union shop; closed to non-union ppl. the advantage is that they actually have a voice with employers.
What was the attitude of gov.?
*It was a capitalist society; business ppl rule everything and there shouldn't be unions.
What was cousin Marija interested in?
Unions; This resulted in loss of her job bc of union activity she participated in.
Who did Jurgis get in a fight with and why? What happened after the fight?
Connor bc he forced Ona to join a brothel; He got blacklisted and went to jail.
What does the author believe in?
Socialism; the workers should take over
what were two big problems for farmers?
RRs bc they got charged for them and there was no income tax, instead the main taxes were property taxes and farmers struggled with that.
name the three solutions they came up with.
1. grange movement
2. alliance movement
3. populist party
*what was the grange movement made up of?
*where was this movement located?
*what was their big emphasis?
*what else did the movement do?
*what did the farmers noticed by the 1880s?
*how many ppl were in this move.?
*small orgs, each a grange of course.
*midwest and south.
*social and educational, build a grange hall so ppl can get together and someone can lecture about the latest technology.
*cooperated on projects and formed farmers cooperatives like they would try to pull money together and establish things together; bartering (trade) involved as well.
*they needed to elect ppl into govt. and wanted to more forceful.
*one million.
*where was the alliance movement located?
*what was different about this movement?
*what was similar to the grange move.?
*what did they help each other with?
*how many ppl were in this move.?
*what kind of ppl were in this?
*who was mary lease?
*what did ppl realize in 1890s?
*midwest and south.
*this move. was more political; each farmer org. was an alliance and they were militant.
*still social and educational
*bank problems; banks would take ppl's farms when banks went bad and if farmer took out loan.
*five mil.; one mil were black..and no there was no intergration.
*whites, blacks, women
*involved in alliance and women's suffrage.
*they began to think in terms of political parties so they created the Populist Party...held a convention in omaha in 1892 and formed that party as well as a pop. platform (which are a list of goals or ideas on a agenda)
*what did the populist party want to regulate?
*what type of money system did they want?
*what else did they want?
*what did they do for the laborers?
*RRs, banks, and utilities such as gas, water, and electricity.
*wanted the "silver standard" which is a loose money supply rather than a gold standard, a tight money supply..only the rich wanted such a thing.
*graduated income tax, direct election of US senators (legislators used to pick them but now they wanted the ppl to vote for senators)
*called for shorter working hours.
what happened in 1896 election...describe the nominees.
*the populist party picked william jennings bryan (made the "cross of gold speech")
*he was against the gold standard because it was only for the rich
*democrats nominated him as well so vote was split when election began
*republicans voted for mckinely and he ends up winning the election.
what happened to the populist party after the election?
*ppl eventually went dem. cuz the pop. party lost the split vote with them
*they tried to become active again in 1900 but most ppl were either dems. or socialists.
Describe the Progressives.
*were also called social reformers
*middle class WASPS; thought they were the leaders & proud of being anglos
*blacks and native ams were progressives too
*both genders in progrs.
*ppl mostly in their 40s; most college educated even women
what were their biggest targets?
*political machines hated them bc they were corrupt; most poli. grps. were run by immigrant grps.
what did the progressive believe in?
*leaders of the city should be edu. and busin. like
*believed in the scientific approach to social problems
what was the first step to solving social problems?
* study the problem.
* there was a concern about drinking on the job bc ppl would go to saloons and machines to get drunk and that's where poll machines were.
* formed a committee of experts.
step two?
*expose the facts to public
*"muckrakers" = ppl who constantly spoke/wrote about stuff negatively and never looked to see the positive
step three?
*pass laws to fix problems
step four?
*enforce laws
*laissez-faire (let it be) = old philospohers followed this; now they wanted to use gov. to solve probs.
*democracy and free ent. were two imp. things
*wanted to restore balance, they thought they were so sure as to what america really wanted
what did step three and four have in common?
they were pwrs. of the gov.
how many amendments did the progressives managed to get through?
what was the 16th amendment?
*graduated income tax of 1913
*grad. inc. tax more fair than sales tax bc it was collected from all kinds of classes
*direct election of the US senators of 1913
*ppl got to vote who senators were instead of legislatures
*prohibition of alcohol
*repealed in 21st amen.
*women's suffrage of 1920
what did the progressive want to increase?
*popular participation
how did they do this?
*initiative (ppl can propose laws; right to petition and ppl vote on it)
*referandum (voters can reject laws)
*recall (voters can remove elected officials)
explain what the purpose of civil serivce exams were.
*tested ppl to make sure they were qualified for a job
*problem: who makes up the exam?, is it really any good?, and who is gonna do better on the writing part?
what was the Hepburn
Act of 1906?
regulated RR's
Federal Reserve Act 1913?
created 12 fed. banks and lend money to smaller banks; set interest rates
what action did the progressives take on labor laws?
*child labor laws and factory safety laws were trying to be passed
*tried to regulate how old a child can work
what action did the prog. take on education?
*if child atteneded school, they didn't work
*they had to go to school til they were 12
*had "americanization programs" (make them learn engl.,take am. courses)
what moral reforms were made?
*18th am. = prohib.
*settlement housing
*women's suffrage
who fought for prohib?
*Frances Willard was the pres.
*her motto: "do everything"
*Anti-saloon league
*wanted to get rid of saloons
*"pressure grp"
*political action committee was another name for press group
describe the settlement houses
*community centers for poor neighborhoods
*volunteers ran these
*Jane Addams founded the first sett. house called Hull House founded in 1889 in chicago & made it a common center
*Florenece Kelley founded the national consumers league
why didn't women want to vote at first?
*women didn't want to vote at first bc they thought they would turn corrupt.
what did the progressive do for women's suffrage?
*set up two groups:
-NAWSA = Stanton, Anthony, and Catt were the leaders
- moderate, dignified; would try to convince pres. that women should vote

- Alice Paul was the leader
- more radical and militant
- bunch of women chained themselves to gates of whtie house til they got women's right to vote; got arrested but as soon as they got out, they chained themselves again
what was the society of american indians?
it was to improve health and education for them
what did the african americans do?
*they were comodationists
*booker t. washington urged ppl to work hard in eco. force then politics
*tuskegee institute = where blks. should go to get edu. first then they can get into politics
*W.E.B. DuBois = activist; pushed for civil rights (NAACP)..dealt with court cases and wanted to get rid of the "seperated but =" ruling.