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50 Cards in this Set

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apportionment
number of memebers of the HOR based on the population of each state
reapportionment
the periodic distribution of US congressional seats according to changes in the census figures
at-large
an election process in which the boters of a city, state, or country as a whole elect their govt reps
duty
a govtmental tax, (imports)
impost
a tax or duty
excise
tax on production, sale, or consumption of products within the US (tobacco, gas, liquor)
Delegated Powers of Congress (powers constitution gives to congress)
1. borrowing power - govt borrow against its credit
2. power to tax - raise $ thru taxes, duties, imposts, & excises to pay debts/provide for people
3. Commerce Power - commerce clause allows congress to regulate/promote trade ~ keeps states from dealing invidually w/ foreign countries
4. Currency power - coin money, stablize value, punich counterfeiters
5. Bankruptcies - bankr. laws (no paying of debts = assets divided among creditors)
6. War Powers - decalre war, provide for common defense/general welfare ~ pwrs shared with pres
7. Others - copywrights/patents, post office
Implied Pwrds of Congress
(not stated specifically in the COnst.)
1. Elastic clause - pwr to pass laws it deems necessary/proper to carry out functions
2. implied powers are not unlimited; they must be based on one or more of the delegated powers
Nonlegislative Pwrs. of Congress (pwrs that are outlined in the constition)
1. Impeachment - remove federal officials from office for treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors
2.Oversight/Investigation - to review policies/organizations using oversight function and subpoena a person for investigation. ~ budgetary powers (authorization - max $ available)and appropriation
1. copywright
2. patent
1. legal right to publish, sell, perform or distribute a literary or artistic work
2. govt's grant to investors assuring them the rights to make, use, or sell their inventions for a specific period of time
impeachment
formal procedure by which a pres or any fed official is removed for misconduct in office - nonlegislastive power of congress
oversight function
pwr of congress to review the policies and programs of the executive branch
authorization
a legislature's approval to implement or continue a govtmental prgm or agency
appropriation
a grant of $ by COngress to be used for specific purposes
subpoena
legal order requiring a person to appear in court or turn over specified docs
Party Leadership in the House of Reps
1. Speaker of the House: Dennis Hastert
2a. Minority Leader: Nancy Pelosi
2b. Majority Leader: Tom DeLay
3a. Minority Whip
3b. Minority Whip
4. Members of the House
Party Leadership in the Senate
1a. President of Senate: Richard Cheney
1b. President Pro Tempore: Ted Stevens
2a. Majority leader: Bill Frist
2b. Minority leader: Harry Reed
3a. Majority whip
3b. Minority Whip
4. Senators
Speaker of the House
presiding officer of the HoR, selected from the memebership. Is always a leader of the majority party.
floor leader
a spokesperson for a party in Congress; one who directs party decisions and strategy
session
meeting of legislative or jduciail body for a specified period of time
majority leader
the legislative leader of the party holding the majority of seats in the House or Senate. (in the house, the majority leader is second to the speaker of the house)
minority leader
legislative leader and spokesperson for the party holding the minority of seats in the house or seante
whip
a senator/representative who works with party leaders to communicate views, solicit support before votes are taken, and keep track of how voting is likely to go
Committee System
hint:organization of congress
-were created to divide the work of congress
A. Types of committees: standing committees, select com., joint coms., & conference coms.
B. Committee assignments
standing committee
a permanent committee that evaluates bills and either kills them or passes them along for further debate
select committee
a temporary congressional committee appointed for a limited purpose
joint committee
a legislative committee made up of members of both houses of Congress
conference committee
a temporary House-Senate committee whose goal is to find an acceptable compromise on conflicting versions of a bill
examples of house & senate committees
appropriations, armed services, & budget
caucuses
informal groups where congress organizes
support agencies & examples
serve members of the House and the Senate. Provide services for other branches of govt and sometimes for the public (library of congress, congressional budget office, general accounting office, govt printing office)
perquisite
a benefit received in addition to a regular salary or wage; a "perk"
franking
free postal service for letters sent by members of congress to their constituents
censure
an offcial expression of blame or disapproval
bill
a proposed law presented to a legislative body
concurrent resolution
a statement of congressional opinion, w/out the force of law, that requires the approval of both the Senate and the House, but not the president
joint resolution
a formal expression of opinion by both houses of Congress that has the force of law
discharge petition
a process designed to force a bill out of committee to the floor of the House of Representatives
pigeonhole
to put aside or ignore a proposed piece of legislation
quorum
the minimum number of members of a group who must be present for the valid transaction of business
filibuster
a tactic, often a length speech or debate, designed to delay the Senate's voe on a bill
cloture
the decision of three-fifths of the Seante to limit or end debate on an issue and call for a vote
germane
having significant relevance to the point at hand
rider
an addition or amendmentto a bill that may have nothing to do with the bill's subject
"Christmas three" bill
a bill to which many irrelevant riders have been attached to increase the likelihood of its passage
gridlock
conflict between the legislative and executive branches that commonly results in inaction
pocket veto
a means by which a President kills a bill that Congress has sent by refusingto act on it until Congress has adjourned
constituent
a person represented by a govt official and, as a result, to whom the official is accountable
pork barrel
a govtmal project that benefits a specific location or lawmaker's home district and constituents
logrolling
the process of exchanging political favors for support