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76 Cards in this Set

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painful menstruation associated with the release of prostaglandins in ovulatory cycles; chief symptom is pelvic pain associated with the onset of menses
dysmenorrhea
amenorrhea
lack of menstruation
failure of menarche and the absence of menstruation by age 14 with no development of secondary sex characteristics

OR

absence of menstruation by age 16 regardless of secondary sex characteristics
primary amenorrhea
absence of menstruation for a time equivalent to 3 or more cycles or 6 months in women who have previously menstruated
secondary amenorrhea
menstrual irregularity or abnormal bleeding patterns; usually caused by anovulation due to age, stress, or endocrinopathy
abnormal uterine bleeding
multiple cysts grow on the ovaries caused by androgen excess, chronic anovulation, or inappropriate gonadotropin secretion
polycystic ovary syndrome
the cyclic recurrence of distressing physical, psychological, or behavioral changes that impair interpersonal relationships or interfere with usual activities
premenstrual syndrome
an acute inflammatory process caused by infection

may involve one or more of the following: uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

most often caused by STIs
pelvic inflammatory disease
infection of the vagina caused by sexually transmitted pathogens, bacterial vaginosis, or candida albicans; development of this is related to skin integrity and pH
vaginitis
nonspecific term used to describe inflammation of the cervix before the indentification of pathogens
cervicitis
inflammation of the vulva; can be caused by contact with soaps, detergents, lotions, hygenic sprays, shaving or menstrual pads
vulvitis
inflammation of one of both of the ducts that lead from the introitus (vaginal opening) to the Bartholin glands
bartholinitis (bartholin cyst)
descent of the bladder and anterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal

in severe cases, they bulge outside of the introitus
cystocele
bulging of the rectum and posterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal
rectocele
herniation of the rectouterine pouch into the rectovaginal septum; usually associated with other pelvic relaxation disorders
enterocele
-cele
hernia
entero-
intestine
descent of the cervix or entire uterus into the vaginal canal
uterine prolapse
produced when a follicle or follicles are stimulated but no dominant follicle develops and completes the maturity process

most common during the reproductive years
benign ovarian cysts
a mass of endometrial tissue that contains a variable amount of glands, stroma, and blood vessels; usually originate at the fundus or the uterus

most are asymptomatic but some cause intermenstrual bleeding
endometrial polyp
benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the myometrium

the most common benign tumors of the uterus
leiomyomas/uterine fibroids
type of cancer that is considered an STD

caused by HPV
cervical cancer (see outline for more info)
type of cancer diagnosed using a Pap smear
cervical cancer
rarest female genital cancer

generally asymptomatic
vaginal cancer
cancer of the vulva
vulvar cancer
most prevalent gynecologic malignancy

treatment usually involves a hysterectomy
endometrial cancer (see outline for more info)
type of cancer that is largely a silent disease

cause is unknown
ovarian cancer (see outline for more info)
male causes of impaired fertility:
diminished quality/production of sperm
female causes of impaired fertility:
tube obstruction, disrupted ovulation, endometriosis (functioning endometrial tissue outside of the uterus)
inflammation of the urethra
(usually caused by a sexually transmitted organism)
urethritis
narrowing/blockage of the urethra caused by scarring
urethral stricture
the foreskin is retracted and cannot be moved forward to cover the glans
paraphimosis
condition in which the foreskin cannot be retracted back over the glans

(foreskin is too tight)
phimosis
"bent nail syndrome"

a fibrotic condition that causes lateral curvature of the penis during erection
peyronie disease
uncommon condition of prolonged penile erection (not associated with sexual arousal)
priapism
inflammation of the glans penis usually associated with poor hygiene and phimosis
balanitis
carcinoma of the penis (rare in the U.S.)
penile cancer
abnormal dilation of a vein within the spermatic cord

classically described as a "bag of worms"
varicocele
collection of fluid within the tunica vaginalis

most common cause of scrotal swelling
hydrocele
painless diverticulum of the epididymis located between the head of the epididymis and the testis

(cyst that develops in the epididymis)
spermatocele
one or both testes fail to descend into the scrotum
cryptorchidism
the testis rotates on its vascular pedicle, interrupting its blood supply
testicular torsion
an acute inflammation of the testes caused by systemic infection or epididymitis
orchitis
symptoms include a painless testicular mass and a dull ache in the lower abdomen
cancer of the testes (see outline for more info)
inflammation of the epididymis (usually caused by a sexually transmitted organism)
epididymitis
nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland
benign prostatic hyperplasia
inflammation of the prostate
prostatitis
type of cancer diagnosed using a digital rectal exam, PSA, and ultrasound
prostate cancer (see outline for more info)
persistant and sometimes excessive secretion of milky fluid from the breast of a woman who is not pregnant or nursing
galactorrhea
palpable lumps in the breast that fluctuate with the menstrual cycle and may become progressively worse until menopause
benign breast disease
leading cause of death for women age 40-44
breast cancer

(see outline for more info)
What are the clinical manifestations of breast cancer?
painless lump
palpable nodes in the axilla
nipple retraction
persistant rash over the breast
ulceration of skin
edema of arm
the overdevelopment of breast tissue in a male
gynecomastia
reportable diseases do not include ________ & _________
human papilloma
herpes
what kind of STIs are considered incurable?
viral
Name 4 complications of STIs.
pelvic inflammatory disease
genital cancer
neonatal mortality
HIV
STI in which the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of bad bacteria

symptoms include discharge with a fishy odor
bacterial vaginosis
bacterial STI with a low incidence in the U.S.

women are usually asymptomatic

causes men to develop an inflamed, painful genital ulcer
chancroid
the primary cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy
chlamydia
the leading cause of blindness in the world
chlamydia
bacterial STI that is often asymptomatic

causes symptoms of UTIs in women

causes urethritis and epididymitis in men

causes eye infections in neonates
chlamydia
adolescents age 15-19 are at high risk of developing this STI
gonorrhea
symptoms of this bacterial STI include urethral/anorectal infections, vaginal discharge, spotting, heavy menses

women may be asymptomatic
gonorrhea
bacterial STI that is often confused with syphilis, herpes, and chancroid
LGV
bacterial STI that begins as a skin lesion and spreads to the lymphatic tissue
LGV (see outline for more info)
incidence of this bacterial STI is decreasing due to the use of penicillin

can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy
syphilis
symptoms of this bacterial STI occur in 5 stages (incubation, primary, secondary, latent, late/tertiary)
syphilis
vaccine for cervical cancer
Gardasil
most common STI in the U.S.
HPV
symptoms of this viral STI are soft, skin colored warts; may occur in clusters

may be asymptomatic
HPV
the incidence of this viral STI is reaching epidemic status in the U.S.
genital herpes
this viral STI is treated with oral acyclovir to decrease virus replication
genital herpes
caused by the parasite phthirus pubis

causes mild to severe itching
pediculosis pubis

"crabs"
caused by the parasite sarcoptes sacbiei

causes intense itching
scabies
caused by the parasite trichomonas vaginalis

causes pain during intercourse, dysuria, and spotting

most men remain asymptomatic
trichomoniasis
in this type of cancer, premalignant lesions occur 10-12 years before invasive cancer
cervical cancer