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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypersensitivity types I, II, III are mediated by what?
antibodies produced by B lymphocytes
hypersensitivity type IV is mediated by what?
t-cells
what type of hypersensitivity is graves disease, hyperacute graft rejection, or incorrect blood typing?
type hypersensitivity II
name the four theories of autoimmunity.
1. antigenic mimicry
2. release of sequestered antigens
3. t-cell theories
4. b-cell theories
which autoimmunity theory states that self cells and antigens have similar characteristics (epitopes) therefore they can trick and slip by the immune system?
antigenic mimcry theory
what autoimmunity theory states there are antigens that are isolated in a certain organ during neonatal period? they are sheltered from the immune system.
release of sequestered antigens
name primary Ab involved in type I hypersensitivity.
IgE
what is IgE's role of intracellular Ca+2?
-binds to mast cells.
-mast cells and IgE crosslink
-increase in Ca+2
how long does the type I hypersensitivity take?
15-20 minues after exposure to Ag
seven steps of type I hypersensitivity.
1. Ag exposed to b-cells
2. b-cells crank out IgE
3. IgE binds to mast cells (covered in IgE)
4. exposure of mast cell to Ag to IgE and Ag's crosslink
5. increase in intracellular Ca+2
6. degranulation
7. inflammation
name some clinical manifestations of type I hypersensitivity.
-hives
-rhinitis
-eczema
-throat constriction
-edema
-tachycardia
-anaphylaxis
what hypersensitivity is tissue specific or cytotoxic?
type II hypersensitivity
what is primary Ab's involved in type II hypersensitivity?
IgG and IgM
how is tissue damaged accomplished in type II hypersensitivity?
1. Ag/Ab complex activates complement
2. binding by macrophages
3. cell phagocytosis
What are Ag and Ab associated with blood types?
Rh- and Rh +
IgM (on all blood)
who is the universal donor?
type O
who is the universal recipient?
type AB
what blood type have no Ab?
type O
what type of blood have no Ag?
type AB
describe the mechanism of erthroblastosis fetalis.
IgG:
*Rh- mother is prego with Rh+ baby
blood mixes at delivery and everyone is ok.
*mother makes antigen to Rh- so next pregnancy mother's IgG crosses placenta and attacks fetal blood cells.
what are the primary Ab's involved in type III hypersensitivity?
IgG
how does tissue damage occur in type III hypersensitivity?
1. Ag/Ab complex formed in blood
2. deposits in tissue
3. activation of complement
4. tissue inflammation; chemotaxis from neutrophils release enzymes and free radicals
5. tissue destruction
where do complexes collect in type III hypersensitivity?
basement membrane
what is a hapten?
incomplete soluble Ag
describe the mechanism of type IV hypersensitivity.
1. hapten binds with another "carrier" protein Hapten+protein = complete Ag
2. Ag taken up by Ag presenting cell
3. Taken to lymph node
4. Presented to Th cells
5. Lymphokines released
6. Inflammation leads to destruction
which branch of the immune response is type IV hypersensitivity?
adaptive immune response
what immunodeficiency disorder is most often congenital from abnormal development? these disorders are often found to be sex linked.
primary immunodeficiency disorder
what immunodeficiency disorder are typically caused by psychosocial, physical, nutritional, environmental, and pharmacologic that lead to abnormal disorders?
secondary immunodeficiency disorders
what is it called when an individual's immune system recognizes its own cells as foreign and mounts an immune response that attacks itself?
autoimmunity
what is the normal immune response that is inappropriately triggered or excessive or produces undesirable effects on the body?
hypersensitivity
what is recognition? MHC/HLA roles
self tolerance
principle cell in type I hypersensitivity?
mast cell
principle chemical mediator in type I hypersensitivity.
histamine
what hypersensitivity is there no Ab's involved?
type IV hypersensitivity