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45 Cards in this Set

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What does an allosteric inhibitor do? Give an example.
An allosteric inhibitor decreases enzyme affinity for a substrate. An example is ATP.
Which allosteric inhibitor is part of the TCA cycle in mitochoncria that prouduced ATP?
citrate.
For a cell to have a particular enzyme activity, what two things must a gene have?
presence and expression.
A cells activity depends on these four things
1. substrate specifity,
2. Km,
3. concentration of reactants,
4. allosterism (activating or inhibiting)
Name five enzyme regulating processes.
1. Post-translational modification,
2. Binding regulatory molecules,
3. Protein-Protein interactions
4. Targeted Degregation
5. Protein Phosphorylation
this mechanism for enzyme regulation turns enzymes on and off, an example is protein phosphorylation
Post-translational modifications
Binding of regulatory proteins may also do what to enzymes and other proteins?
signal their molecules
Enzymes in a complex with regulatory subunits that affect the activity of the enzyme is called what?
Protein-Protein interactions
The specific degregation of proteins is another way that cells can regulate enzymes expressed by cells is called what?
Targete degregation.
How many processes does Protein Phosphorylation involve?
Two.
What two distinct processes does protein phosphorylation involve?
1. Enzymes called kinases transfer phosphate from ATP to protein substrate,
2. Enzymes called phosphatases cleave phosphate from the protein to return the protein to original state and release inorganic phosphate.
Which steps have kinases and phosphatases in protein phosphorylation?
Kinases are in the first step, phosphatases are in the second step.
Phosphorylation provides a mechanism for what?
reversible modification of proteins to regulate their functions.
Does phosphoylation happen only in multicellular organisms?
No, this protein mechanisms enzymes is found in bacteria and algae as well.
What are the products of protein kinases?
phospholated protein and ADP
What are six examples of protein kinases given?
PKA, PKC, CaM kinase, cdk, MLCK, src
What are PKA, PKC, CaM kinase, cdk, MLCK, src protein kinases?
1.PKA: cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase
2.PKC:Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent kinase
3.CaM kinase: calmodulin-dependent kinases
4.cdk: cyclin-dependent kinase
5.MLCK: myosin light chain kinase (role in contraction of smooth muscle cells)
6. src: transforming gene from avian sarcoma virus
How many kinases in the human Kinome?
500 kinases.
How are protein phosphatases ordered?
Type 1, 2A, 2B
What are the two products of protein phosphophatases?
dephosphorylated protein and Pi
Okadeic acid (shellfish/red tide) and microcystins (produced by toxic blue/green algae)are newly discovered toxins and liver carcinogens are also what?
Phosphatase inhibitors
What has wider substrate specificity than protein kinases?
Protein Phosphates.
What has wider substrate specifity than protein kinases?
Protein Phrosphatases.
What has wider substrate specifity than protein kinases?
Protein Phrosphatases.
In specific sequences on the surface of protein hydroxyl-containing amino acids in specific sequences are what?
Phosphorolation sites in proteins
Kinases do what two things?
utilize ATP by attaching it to a protein amino acid and recognizes substrates
Kinases are made from what groups?
A) Ser/Thr
B) Tyr
C) Both Ser/Thr and Tyr
Ser/Thr kinases are what?
Short akile groups only differing by the CH2 group
Tyr kinases are what kind of group?
Big Bulky groups.
What does "dual specificity" in kinases mean?
The kinases are both Ser/Thr and Tyr. (they are both short akile groups with differing CH2 groups and big bulky groups)
What are the specificites of kinsases?
Ser/Thr, Tyr or both
Specificity is determined by what two things?
the protein expresse in the cell and the local area of the cell
What reflects the expressed protein?
The cells phenotype
What is often the same from cell to cell for a protein to be expressed?
kinases
What is the same for a protein to be expressed in a cell?
second messangers/activators (cAMP, Ca^2+, DG ext.
Cells use their priming to react to kinases as what happens?
Phosphorolation of the cells.
Substrate proteins that a cell expresses gives rise to what?
the cell's specific response
Many genes need to be turned on for critical steps in this complex mechanism, such as the critical central pathway, 4 kineases and the lots of genes involved
Phosporylation cascades
Phosphorylation cascades allows for what kind of network?
hiarchal network
glycogen->glucose->pyrate mechanism does what?
In phosphorylation cascades it activates one an inactivates the other pathway back tracking like veins and arteries.
What are two purposes of phosphorylation cascades?
1. initiation of cell growth
2. control of glucose metabolism
In phosphorylation cascades the breakdown of glycogen in the process of glycolysis forms what, to do what?
ATP is formed in glycolysis to initate cell growth.
the synthesis of glycogen is also called what?
gluconeogenesis
What is the difference between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis?
glycolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to form ATP,
gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glycogen
turn on glycolysis and inhibit gluconeogenesis (or vice versa) so
active and inactive enzymes swootch on and off during phosphorylation