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34 Cards in this Set

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What is an allergic reaction
it is an exaggerated response by the immune system to a foreign substance they can be a mild skin rash or severe
Anaphylaxis
an unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction
hymenoptera
any of an order of highly specialized insects such as bees and wasps
How many deaths annually are related to anaphylaxis
400-800
what are the two most common causes of fatal anaphylaxis
penicillin adn bee and wasp stings
where can componants of the immune system be found
blood
bone marrow
lymphatic system
what is cellular immunity
involves a direct attack of the foreign substance by specialized cells of the immune system these cells physically engulf the pathogen
What is humoral immunity
a chemical attack from antibodies
What is an antigen
andy substance capable of starting an immune response
Primary response
the first response to an antigen
where can componants of the immune system be found
blood
bone marrow
lymphatic system
what is cellular immunity
involves a direct attack of the foreign substance by specialized cells of the immune system these cells physically engulf the pathogen
What is humoral immunity
a chemical attack from antibodies
What is an antigen
andy substance capable of starting an immune response
Primary response
the first response to an antigen
secondary response
immune system that takes place if the body is exposed to the same antigen again
natural immunity
genetically predetermined immunity
acquired immunity
develops over time from exposure
naturally acquired immunity
immunity that begins to develop after birth
induced active immunity
immunity achieved through vaccination given to generate an immune response that results in the development of antibodies
active immunity
acquired immunity that occurs following exposure to an antigen and results in the production of antibodies specific for the antigen
passive immunity
acquired immunity that results from administration of antibodies either from mother to the infant across the placental barrier or through vaccination
Sensitization
initial exposure of a person to an antigen that results in an immune response
hypersensitivity
an enexpected and exaggerated reaction to a particular antigen, It is used synonymously with the term allergy
allergy
a hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a particular allergen
The antibody most commonly associated with hypersensitivity reactions is
IgE
What is Urticaria and what is it caused by
a reaction characterized by red raised bumps that are due to vasodialation
What does the histamine induce in allergic reactions
vasodilation and bronchospasm
vascular permeability and increased intestinal motility
What is Desensitization
this involves the administration of very small amounts of the antigen to a patient in a series of injections the amounts are increased until the immune response is blunted
waht is SRS-A
slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis which reluslt in an asthma like attack or asphyxia
what are most antignes made of
Proteins
what is a secondary response
this is when the person is experiencing an exposure for the second time
how does anaphylaxis present
laryngeal edema and bronchoconstriction
tachycardia plus massive vasodilation resulting in profound hypotension, flushing and urticaria are common, angioedema about the face and neck, N/V and diarrhea
what is the main chemical mediator of an allergic reaction
histamine