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23 Cards in this Set

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The different forms of a gene. Y and y are different alleles of the gene that determines seed color. Alleles occupy the same locus, or position, on chromosomes
A locus on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked.
co-dominant alleles
Two different alleles at a locus are responsible for different phenotypes, and both alleles affect the phenotype of the heterozygote. For example, consider the situation where there are three alleles A,B, and O that determine human blood type. Three possible genotypes are AA, BB, OO that correspond to the phenotypes of blood type A, B, and O respectively; Two other genotypes are AO and BO that correspond to blood types A and B, respectively because the O allele is recessive, The remaining genotype is AB, corresponding to blood type AB. Both the A and B alleles contribute to the phenotype of the heterozygote. Thus the alleles A and B are said to be co-dominant
Organisms produce only one type of gamete; i.e. humans
One gene masks the expression of a different gene for a different trait
The genetic constitution of an organism with respect to a trait. For a single trait on an autosome, an individual can be homozygous for the dominant trait, heterozygous, or homozygous for the recessive trait. Yellow seeds are dominant, but yellow seeded plants could have a genotype of either YY or Yy.
If there is only one copy of a gene for a particular trait In a diploid organism, the organism is hemizygous for the trait, and will display a recessive phenotype. X-linked genes in fly or human males are hemizygous
Differing alleles for a trait in an individual, such as Yy.
matter composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number (protons).
the smallest component of an element that still has properties of the element, consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a charged cloud of electrons.
"+" and "-" charges strongly attract.
particle in the nucleus with a positive charge of +1 and an atomic mass number of 1 Dalton
a non-charged nuclear particle with the same mass as the proton
negatively charged particle (-1) with a mass 1/1837 of that of a proton
atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons
The SI unit of electric current, equal to flow of 1 coulomb of charge per second. An ampere is the amount of current necessary to produce a force of 0.2 micronewtons per meter between two arbitrarily long, arbitrarily thin wires, placed parallel in a vacuum and exactly 1 m apart. Named for 19th century physicist André Marie Ampère.
Prefix used in the SI system meaning "one hundredth of". For example 1 cm means "one hundredth of a meter"; 2.3 cg could also be written "2.3 × 10-2 g" or "0.023 g".
conversion factor.
A conversion factor is a fraction that relates one unit to another. Multiplying a measurement by a conversion factor changes the units of the measurement. For example, since 1 in = 2.54 cm, to convert 10 inches to centimeters,
(10 in) 2.54 cm
1 in = 25.4 cm
The SI unit of electric charge, equal to the amount of charge delivered by a current of 1 ampere running for 1 second. One mole of electrons has a charge of about 96487 C.
Mass of a substance per unit volume. Saying "the density of mercury is 13.55 g/cm3 " is the same as saying "the mass of exactly 1 cm3 of mercury is 13.55 g".
A metric unit of mass, equal to 1/1000 of a kilogram. Kilograms are the base SI units for mass, not grams
kelvin. (K)
The SI base unit of temperature, defined by assigning 273.16 K to the temperature at which steam, ice, and water are at equilibrium (called the triple point of water). The freezing point of water is 273.15 K.
kilo-. (k)
Prefix used in the SI system meaning "one thousand of". For example 1 km means "one thousand meters"; 2.8 kg could also be written "2.8 × 103 g" or "2800 g".
Mass is a measure of the tendency of an object to resist acceleration. It's harder to roll a tractor trailer than a roller skate; the tractor trailer has a far greater mass.