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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Addition of HX
in ether, Markovnikov
1 eq = vinylic halide
2 eq = geminal dihalide
Addition of X2
in CH2Cl2
Halonium ion
1 eq = trans addition
2 eq = anti addition to halo alkene
Hydration (Hg)
HgSO4 in H2SO4
most stable C+
Hydration (Hg)
HgSO4 in H2SO4 solution
Hg as E+, HOH as Nu
enol-keto tautomerization
terminal - methyl ketone
symmetrical - 1 ketone
unsymmetrical - mixed ketones
with BH3 or 9BBN in H2O2 and OH
empty B p-orbital as E+
enol-keto tautomerization
KMnO4 cleavage
in acid solution
terminal - carb acid + CO2
symmetrical - single carb acid
unsymmetrical - mix of carb acids
H2 addition (Pt/Pd)
first addition - both H on same face
second addition - makes alkane
H2 addition (Lindlar)
Lindlar = PbAc and quinone
unreactive toward alkenes
results in Z alkene
H2 addition (Li, NH3)
Li donates e- to alkyne
Vinylic C radical anion takes H from NH3
Li donates 2nd e- to other vinylic C radical which takes another H from NH3
E alkene results
Z hydrogenation
H2 addition with Lindlar catalyst
E hydrogenation
H2 addition in liquid ammonia with Li metal