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186 Cards in this Set

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Erythrocytes live how long in avian
20-35 days( shorter than mammals)
Do birds have platelets
No, nucleated thrombocytes
Birds have what rather than neutrophils?
Heterophils
Primary sign a bird is sick
Not grooming themselves
Chewed feathers are split
longitudinally
Enteritis is caused by
coccidiosis, giardia, psitaccosis/chlamydiosis
What is your Dx. Feces blood tinged, watery, chronic
coccidiosis
Types of coccidia in avian
Eimeria, Isospora, Doriseilla, Wenyonella, Tyzzeria
Tx of coccidia
sulfa drugs, amprollium in water
Most frequent ectoparasite of small psitticines
Cnemidocoptes piliae-scaly leg and face mite
CS of scaly leg and face mite
stars at angle of beak, disfigured beak, tassle feet
Treatment scaly leg mite
dichlorvos, petroleum to soften legs
The storage of what nutrient is very low in birds
glycogen
Most common fracture in bird
comminuted
Swelling above and below eye
sinusitis
Sinuses infected in sinusitis
supra and infraorbital
Sinusitis initiated by
Hypovitaminosis A
Egg binding is comon problem in
caged and aviary birds
Egg binding associated with
atony or spasms of oviduct
Causes of egg binding
obesity, large egg, low ca, poor musle tone, nervousness, temp variation, lack of nesting
CS of egg binding
Straining, neck seeking, paresis, egg palpated just above pelvic inlet
Treatment of eggbinding
-Place in warm cage with infrared
-Lubricate
-Hypodermic needle
-laparotomy
-ca gluconate
Causes of beak deformities
-Budgies-very common
-Trauma
-Wear
-Metabolic bone dz
-Candidiasis
A dislocated jaw is unlikely in birds due to
double articulation
Persistant egg laying seen with
-Cockatiels
- Removal of oviduct not ovary
-Medroxyprogesterone(bugges, psitt)
Hyperthermia in avian seen with
Ketamine
Excellent indicator of high body temp
cloaca temp
Tx of hyperthermia
oxygen, IM dextrose, alcohol spray
Very susceptable to giardia
Budges
What is your diagnosis? Avian Small intestine filled with semisolid material and contain a large number of organisms
giardia
Dx of giardia
Dead bird- duodenal scrapings
Only _____ of giardia spread in droppings
cysts
Treatment giardia
dimtridazole
What is your dx? Unproductive regurgitating movement?
Crop impaction
What is your dx. Foul, foamy, yellow brown diarrhea in avian
Giardia
Treatment crop impaction
mineral, vegetable oil, surgery
What is candida
yeast
MC species of candida
albicans
Tx candida
Nystatin, Vit A and B, Ampho B
What comprise 80% of respiratory system
airsacs
DX? Necrotic pseudomembranous patches over mucosa of tongue and pharynx and crop, looks like a terry cloth
Candidiasis
Airsacs commonly infected with
Aspergillus, coliform bacteria
Beak and feather disease seen in what bird
psittacines
Etiology of Beak and feather disease
circovirus
Clinical signs of beak and feather disease
abnormal molts, dystophic feathers, beaks, claws
Infective mode of action of beak and feather disease
dust from affected bird feathers
Vitamin A important for
growth, vision, epithelium
Perisitant cloacal prolapse can be due to
viral papilloma
Twisted dystrophic quills that fail to mature and shed prematurely.Bilateral symmetrical loss of feathers What is dx
beak and feather dz
Treatment of cloacal prolapse
purse string around vent, two mattress around vent, remove wedge of vent, cloacopexy (vent to abdomen)
All birds with respiratory signs should be suspected of having
hypovitaminosis A
Psitacosis caused by
Chlamydia (rickettsia like organism
Dx? Post mortem hepatomegaly with faint patchy necrosis
chlamydiosis
Bird with rapid loss of heterophils
beak and feather disease
Abcess in mouth
Hypovit A
Zoonotic disease of birds
Chlamydiosis
MC nutritional disorder seen in avian
hypovitaminosis A
Dx of chalydia
impression smear from liver,stain with Ziehl neelson or macchiavello (IC IB)
White necrotic plaques in mouth and throat
hypovit A
Tx of chlamydia
IM oxytet, oral chlortetracylcline for 45 days
Why is chlortet preferred over oxytet
oxytet chelates Cu, Fe, Ca for poorer intestinal absorption
Type of activity in tetracyclines
anti- Vit B
Common causes of swelling in sinuses
hypovitaminosis A
Gout is a metabolic disorder characterized by
Deposition of urates and uric acid
Uric acid is a normal product of
nitrogen metabolism
Uric acid deposits in
liver and kidney
2 forms of gout
visceral and articular
Visceral urate deposits due to
impaired renal function, urinary tract obstruction
Articular urate deposits due to
unknown
Dx of visceral gout
urate dusting on liver and pericardial surface, swollen enlarged kidney
What is your dx? Lameness, reluctance to fly or perch
articular gout
White yellow centers around joints, ligaments, and tendons
Articular gout
Dx of gout
post mortem, Murexide test (add nitric acid,evaporate 1 drop of aspirated joint material, will turn purple-red if positive
Tx of gout
-incurable, treat symptoms
-allopurinol- inhibits xanthonoxidase synthesis of uric acid
Contraindicated tx of gout
glucocorticoids-increases protein catabolism
Egg peritonitis findings
Fibrin in abdominal cavity
Egg peritonitis due to
ectopic ovulation
tx of Egg peritonitis
abdominal irrigation via laparotomy with AB
What may happen when birds are disturbed or handled
ova shed into abdomen-normal, sterile
What is disease of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Rickets and osteomalacia
Cause of Rickets and osteomalacia
lowered blood Ca+
What is your Dx?PU/PD, bones painful, legs and claws inflamed/swollen, muscle spasms
nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Tx of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
gluconate solution-monitor hr
What is the disease known to cause failure of mineralization of osteoid matrix in young birds
rickets-hypocalcemia
Rickets due to
Decreased Ca+, Vit D, or imbalanced Ca:P ratio
Vitamin D is needed to
Stimulate synthesis of Ca binding protein in intestinal wall
Normal Ca:P ratio
1/12 to 3:1
What is Dx? S shaped sternum, softening of vertebrae/claws, curved inward ribs, neurologic
Rickets
Tx of rickets
Ca, Vit D, supplement diet
Bone disease of adult birds
osteomalacia
What is disease characterized by mineral loss in bone when resorption exceeds deposition
osteomalacia
Causes of osteomalacia
-Prolonged egg laying with insufficient Ca supply
-Lack of grit in food(needed in gizzard to grind food)
Adult bird, bones break spontaneously
Osteomalacia
What is your diagnosis? X-ray of an adult bird showscorice thinning, mineral callus formation
Osteomalacia
Goiter is also known as
thyroid dysplasia
Goiter is hypothyroidism caused by what
iodine deficiency
Iodine is required for
thyroxin synthesis
What happens to thyroid when you have a goiter
TSH from anterior pituitary increased, results in thyroid follicles becoming hyperplastic (enlarged)
Primary differential in a bird with Labored respiration and squeeky noises
goiter
Can hyperplasia of the thyroid be found on palpation or x-ray in a bird
No-use thyroxin levels
Tx of goiter in bird
Levothyroxine, iodine
Most common disease in pigeons
Trichomoniasis (gallinae)
High mortality in young birds
Trichomoniasis
Wet canker, dry caseous necrosis/what is your dx
Trichomoniasis
Upon a smear of mouth you see organisms with twisting tails, what is your dx?
Trichomoniasis
Tx of Trichomoniasis
Dimetridazole in drinking water for 7 days
Most widespread zoonotic disease of birds
salmonellosis
Most important salmonella in birds
typhimurium
Symptoms of salmonellosis in birds
asymptomatic
# of samples collected to rule out salmonella in birds
3
M/C aspergillus in birds
flavus
Type of toxin in aspergillus flavus
mycotoxin
Birds get aspergillus flavus from
cereal, peanuts, bread
Aspergillus flavus affects birds how?
hepatocarcinogenic-affects hepatocytes ability to metabolize fats
What is your diagnosis? Bird with diarrhea, incoordination, sudden death
aspergillus flavus
Tx of aspergillus flavus
electrolytes
Aspergillus fumigatus aka
Border pneumonia, pseudo TB, Bronchomycosis, Cytomycosis, Chick fever
Aspergillus fumigatus infective via
inhalation of spore or hyphal fragment
Yellow-green or blue plaques in lung and airsacs
Aspergillus fumigatus
What is your DX? Gurgling sound in trachea?
Aspergillus fumigatus
Dx of Aspergillus fumigatus via
detection of plaques and hyphae on KOH
Tx of Aspergillus fumigatus
Ampho B
Air sac mites are
sternostoma traheacolum
Ulceration of airsacs that resemble tumors
Air sac mites
What is your dx? Clicking sounds, dyspnea through an open beak, loss of voice, loss of sound, loss of feathers around ear?
Air sac mites
Dx of Air sac mites
TTW
Post mortem of Air sac mites
tracheitis, airsacculitis, black spots on mm
Tx of Air sac mites
malathion powder
Major differential for botulism
lead poisoning
Limberneck
lead poisoning, botulism
What is a disease primarily of Macaw's?
Macaw wasting disease
What does Macaw wasting disease cause?
Dilitation of Proventriculus
Origin of Macaw wasting disease
Viral
Diagnosis of MWD ( Proventricular dilitation syndrome)( Psiticcine Neuropathic gastric dilitation)
Radiographs
A bird is presented with wt loss, passage of whole seeds, neuro signs, and begging for food. What is your dx?
MWD
Treatment of MWD
High fiber, moist, seed free, TMZ
Sequela to MWD
Peritonitis, pneumonia
Aflatoxin in birds cause
Hysteroid seizures (Fusarium trcincum)
Seizures in african greys caused by
Nutritional secondaru hyperparathyroidism and oxytet
Twirling syndrome=
Newcastle dz(paramyxovirus)
Teflon toxicosis causes
toxic fumes cause red coloration to lungs
Paralyzed budgie primary differential
Renal Adenocarcinoma(press on sciatic)
Etiology of Budgerigar Fledgling Disease
Polyomavirus
Strain of BFD in budges
BFDV-1
Strain of BFD in parrots
BFDV-3
A parrot is presented with lack of down feathers on its back, hydrodropericaridium, and cannot fly, what is your primary diff.
Budgerigar Fledgling disease
Potentially zoonotic yeast from birds
cryptococcus
Etiology of cryptococcus
Crypto neoformans
Diagnosis of crypto
impression smears with india ink
Zoonotic via inhalation of spores
Histo
Etiology of histo
Histo capsulatum
Histo found mostly in.
soil, bat droppings
Conures are asymptomatic carriers of what?
Pacheco's Parrot Disease
Pacheco's disease etiology
Herpes V
Bright green viliverdin stained feces and urates
Pacheco's Disease
Conjunctivitis, tremors, and convulsions
Pacheco's Dz
Eosinophillic IN inclusions in hepatocytes and kidneys
Pacheco's DZ
Velogenic Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease etiology
paramyxovirus
Yellow hemmorrhagic diarrhea
Newcastle Dz
A bird comes in with torticollis, pantropic organ dysfunction, coughing and sneezing with yellow diarrhea what is you dx
NCD
What virus of birds is reportable
NCD
Outbreaks caused by bird smuggling
NCD
encephalomyelitis etiology
Arbovirus carried by biting insects
Is there a clinical disease of encephalomyelitis in birds.
Not usually
Etiology of EEE. WEE, VEE
Toga
Etiology of St. Louis, West Nile
Flavi
Mosquito that transmits E & W
Culiseta melanura
Mosquito that transmits VEE
Aedes, Culex
Encephamomyelitis can survive over winter in.
Migrating birds, reptiles, snakes
What are sentinels for Encephamomyelitis in humans
Horses
Horse is dead end host for
EEE, WEE
Horse is amplifying host for
VEE
Anaphylactic shock in birds
Metabolic acidosis, high uric acid, hyper or hypo kalemia
Salmonella most commonly seen in
African greys
Pasterella comes from
cat bites
Avian tuberculosis common in
grey cheeked parrots
Staph and strep most common in
psittici
Bumble foot=
staph
GI flora predominately
Gram +
Reportable zoonotic bacteria
chlamydia
Lime green urates
chlamydia
TX of chlamydia
chlortetracycline
Candidiasis mc etiology
Albicans
gape worm=
syngamus trachea
Pox dz diagnosis
ICIB
Avian influenza virus
orthomyxo-hemagglutinating