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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fuctional vision/Visual efficiency
How well a person sees at various distances.
Visual acuity
How well a person sees at various distances.
Low Vision
level of vision which with, standard correction, hinders an individual in the planning or execution of a task, but which permits the enhancement of the functional vision through the use of optical or non optical devices
Congenital visual impairment
severe visual impairment present at birth
adventitious blindness
acquisition of a severe visual impairment
Legal Blindness
Visual acuity measured as 20/2-- or less in the better eye, with best correction or peripheral vision no greater than 20 degrees wide who may or may not use print to receive info.
Impact on language development (Blindness)
makes it difficult to see the connections between experiences
Impact on Language development (Blindness)
leads to delays of deficits in motor development
Impact on Social adjustment and interaction (Blindness)
1.May interact less and are delayed in social skill development
2. Many blind individuals report that their biggest difficulty is dealing with attitudes and behaviors of others
improper alighnment of the eyes, causing two images to be received by the brain resulting in the possible loss of function in one eye
rapid involuntary movements of the eye that interfere with bringing objects into focus ( albinism )
fluid in the eye is restricted, causing pressure to build up and damage the retina
Retinopathy of Prematurity- caused by administration and withdrawal of high doses of oxygen to premature infants in incubators
retinis pigmentosa
genetic eye disease which leads progressively to blindness; night blindness is the first symptom
Cortical visual impairments
Due to damage or malfunction of the parts of the brain that interpret visual information
The student is not able to hear even with a hearing aid and is unable to use hearing as a primary way to gain info.
Hard of hearing
Significant hearing loss that makes special adaptations necessary. Also have sufficient residual hearing to be able, with a hearing aid, to comprehend others speech and communication.
Congenitally deaf
present at birth
prelingually deaf
onset before the age of language
postlingually deaf
onset following the development of language
Deaf children born to deaf parents
usually learn to communicate when they are babies using sign language or combination of sign and oral
Deaf children born to hearing parents
greater difficulty acquiring speech and language because parent may not use total communication approach as early as possible
Educational approaches: oral/ aural
training in producing and understanding speech is incorporated into virtually all aspects of the child's education
Educational approaches: total communication
simultaneous presentation of language by speech and manual communication
Educational approaches: ASL
ASL is a legitimate language in ints own right. the goal of the bilingual-bicultural approach is to help deaf students become blingual adults who can read and write with competence in their second language.
Ways to become HIV +
Vaginal fluid
Breast milk
Other body fluids containing blood
HIV is not transmitted by:
shaking hands, hugging, or a casual kiss,toilet seat, a drinking fountain, a doorknob, dishes, drinking glasses, food, or pets.
A retrovirus that causes AIDS by infecting helper T cells of the immune system. The most common serotype, HIV-1, is distributed worldwide, while HIV-2 is primarily confined to West Africa.
combination of symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, blood abnormalities, and susceptibility to opportunistic infections that is a precursor to AIDS in some individuals infected with HIV.
A severe immunological disorder caused by the retrovirus HIV, resulting in a defect in cell-mediated immune response that is manifested by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and to certain rare cancers, especially Kaposi's sarcoma. It is transmitted primarily by exposure to contaminated body fluids, especially blood and semen.
Physical Disability
Includes orthopedic and neuromotor impairments; require special services; most common is cerebral palsey
Health Impairments
include limited strength, vitality and alertness and are caused by health problems such as heart conditions
Prevention of Physical impairments and health conditions
*Prenatal care
*preventing injuries
*preventing infectious diseases and other illnesses
Generalized tonic clonic; absence; complex partial; simple partial seizure
not a disease;
procedures for dealing with a general seizure
*be calm
*ease child to floor and *clear area of dangerous things
*put something soft under their head
*dont interefere with movement
*turn them to their side
*dont force mouth open, hold tongue or put anything in their mouth
cerebral palsey
A disorder usually caused by brain damage occurring at or before birth and marked by muscular impairment. Often accompanied by poor coordination, it sometimes involves speech and learning difficulties
Spina Bifida
congenital defect in which the spinal column is imperfectly closed so that part of the meninges or spinal cord protrudes, often resulting in hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders. Also called schistorrhachis
Cystic fibrosis
A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands, usually developing during early childhood and affecting mainly the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands. It is characterized by the production of abnormally viscous mucus by the affected glands, usually resulting in chronic respiratory infections and impaired pancreatic function. Also called mucoviscidosis.
sickle cell anemia
A chronic, usually fatal anemia marked by sickle-shaped red blood cells, occurring almost exclusively in Black people of Africa or of African descent, and characterized by episodic pain in the joints, fever, leg ulcers, and jaundice. The disease occurs in individuals who are homozygous for a mutant hemoglobin gene. Also called sickle cell disease.
Shunt (hydrocephaly)
A passage between two natural body channels, such as blood vessels, especially one created surgically to divert or permit flow from one pathway or region to another; a bypass.
persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity or combination
*diminished rule governed behavior
*increased variability of task performance
*poor sense of time
*difficulty writing
*wild mood swings
ADD/ADHD drug therapy
Pros: safe and effective intervention; reduction in hyperactivity, increased attention and time on task, increased productivity
Cons: dont make specific or general academic achievement; side effects such as insomnia, decreased appetite, weight loss
ADD/ADHD behavior intervention
Pros: learn self control, follow rules
Cons: takes time
Challenges faced by students with PD and HI
*negative stereotypes
*personal feelings about appearances
*physical and medical requirements
*limitations on mobility, communication and energy
Educational approaches with PD and HI
* adjusted schedules
* extra time
* creative solutions to absenses
* assistive technology
Avariables affecting PI and HI
* Age of onset
* Severity
* visibility
Such severe communication and other developmental and learning needs that the person cannot be appropriately educated in s.e. programs solely for chidren with hearing impairments, visual impairments or severe disabilities without supplementary assistance to address their education needs due to these dual concurrent disabilities
Criteria for Deaf-blindness
* visual acuity of 20/70 or worse in the better eye
*and auditory deficity of 30 db in the better ear
Severe disabilities
children who, because of the intensity of their physical, mental or emotional problems, need highly specialized education, social, psychological and medical servies in order to maximize their full potential. Includes autism, mr, or two or more disabilities.
Profound disabiities
disabilities in:
* cognition
* communication
*social skills development
*motor mobility
*activities of daily living
(below 2 year level)
educational approaches for severe disabilities
*taught skills that are functional, age-appropriate and directed toward the community
*interaction with typically developing peers
* choice making skills
* functional communication
*recreation and leisure skills
acquired injury to brain caused by external physical force resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or both. Open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, judement.
Causes of TBI
* Motor accidents
* Violence
* sports
TBI physical changes
*poor coordination, weakness and fatigue
*vision, hearing, sense of taste, tough and smell
*sleep problems
TBI cognitive changes
*attention deficits
*long or short term memory limitations
*slowed processing
*poor judement
*difficulty planning and organizing tasks
TBI linguistic changes
problems in expressive oral or written language
*physical damage may cause communication difficulty
* receptive and written language
*interpreting voice inflection or nonverbal cues
TBI social and personality changes
*chronically agitated, irritable or anxious
*increases aggressiveness
*poor anger control
*overestimate own abiloity
*frequent outbursts
Educational approaches (TBI)
* shortened school day
*plan and review each day's schedule
*extra textbooks at home
*repeat and review
* simple frequent instructions
* computers
*refocus attention