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19 Cards in this Set

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cheese ripened
secondary fermentation of curd used (roquefort (blue cheese) - penicilluim roqueforti (mold), swiss- propinebacterium species
malting
barley grains are germinated (1 week), plant dried and crushed to release plant enzymes (amylase-proteinase). Powder called malt
cheese unripened
1 step fermnetation (cottage cheese, sour cream, cream cheese)
wort is
cooked with hops (2 hrs) (plant enzymes deactivated, killing microbes, more concentrated) filtered, and then cooled
grading of dairy products
A = 100,000 CFU/ml as raw
20,000 CFU/ml as pstrzed
B which is used for dairy treatment = 1,000,000 CFU/ml as raw 50,000 CFU/ml as pasteurized
mashing
malt(enzymes) adding hot water and grains (carbohydrate starch) enzymes in malt -- will break down starch to sugars the liquid produced is called wort
dairy product through fermentation
fermenting lactose -- lactic acid lactic acid bacteria
pitching
adding yeast to the wort after cooled
cheese primary fermentation
lactose -- lactic acid -- lactic acid bacteria/rennin/helps coagulate protein -- low ph coagulate casien = curd milk protein = whey
bottom fermentation - ale
yeasts - saccharomyces cerevisal ale is not aged held at 14-23 C for 5-7 days Sugar -- CO2 + ethanol 3-6% alcohol concentrate
other microbial products that must be controlled
antibiotics, steroids, vitamins, organic acids and enzymes, baking (yeasts), solvents/fuels, bioremediation (clean environment) and insecticides
top fermentation (form lager)
yeast used are in saccharomyces - (carlsbergensis) 6-12 C for 7-14 days beer is also aged for 1-6 weeks in the cold
pathogens for dairy
TB, staph, strep, salmonella, shigella, and listeriosis
primary fermentation for distilled liquor
fermentation of starting product -- CO2 + ethanol by yeast in the saccharomyces -- distilled (gives higher concentration of alcohol)
to test dairy control use
standard plate count, coliform analysis (fecal contamination), phosphate test (enzyme in raw but not pasteurized milk - determine effictiveness of pasteurization) also a penicillin test
pasturization of beer and ale to destroy microbes
60 C 15-20 mins
microfiltratin CO2 added (0.5% conc.) and then packaged
Normal flora for dairy
lactobacillus, stroptococcus, leuconastoc
type of liquor depends on the starting product
rum-sugarcane syrup or mollasses
bourbon-corn
tequila-cactus
vodka-potatoes
To control the quality of milk
inspect animals, inspect sanitation of dairy, inspect handlers, and pasteurize