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193 Cards in this Set

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.cshrc
The .cshrc file is one of the two startup files for the C shell that are read every time the user starts a shell or accesses a new shell. It gives information about the shell prompt, the number of command lines to be saved for future reference, and the custom commands that have been created.
.login
The .login file is one of the two startup files for the C shell. Whenever you log in to the system, the C shell looks for the .login and .cshrc files. The .login file stores information about the terminal being used and your shell prompt, as well as any application you want to run immediately after logging in.
.profile
The .profile file is the startup file in a Bourne or Korn shell. Whenever a user is added to the system, the system administrator copies the /etc/stdprofile file into the .profile file. This file contains the standard settings for that system, such as the type and path of the terminal being used.
/etc/passwd file
The /etc/passwd file is the system file used to keep track of all the login names and other user identifications needed by Unix.
/stand
System directory which contains all files and programs necessary to boot the Unixware system.
absolute pathnames
Absolute pathnames, or full pathnames, provide the exact location of the file in the directory structure, starting from the root directory.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) offers the network interface protocols in the data link layer the capability of translating Internet addresses into hardware addresses.
Advanced Interactive Executive (AIX)
The Advanced Interactive Executive is the Unixoperating system developed by IBM for its Unix-designated hardware platforms: RT6000, PS/2, and 370 VM. It is a multitasking, multiuser and time-sharing operating system. Two unique features of the AIX operating system are its SMIT command and the InfoExplorer program.
ARCserveIT
A backup management application bundled with the SCO Unixware 7 media kit.
artificial links
An artificial link is a file that contains the name of another file and its complete path. It links to a file that is either on a different file system on the same computer or maybe even on a different computer. These links are called artificial links because the names of the files are not considered by Unix to be the actual file names.
awk
The awk file-processing utility provides an easy way to state and perform various text manipulation tasks. Using this utility, you can generate reports containing selective columns from a structured text file.
backup partition
A backup partition is a hard disk partition that is used for backing up file systems and is always encouraged to be larger than the rest of the partitions.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) is a version of Unix developed by researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, who made modifications in Unix and added utilities such as the text editor vi and the C shell. This final version after inclusion of these modifications was named BSD.
bin directory
The bin directory in the Unix file system contains the most frequently used standard Unix programs and utilities necessary for running the system. The term bin, derived from binary, indicates that the programs are in executable form.
boot block
The boot block is one of the four sections of the file system. It is termed as block 0 and is the first block of a file system. It is reserved for storing the boot procedures.
Bourne shell
The Bourne shell is the original command processor developed at AT&T and named after its developer, Stephen R. Bourne. This is the fastest and most widely used shell. The executable file name is sh. The prompt used in this shell is dollar ($).
C shell
The C shell command processor was developed by William Joy and his colleagues at the University of California at Berkeley. The shell is named after its programming language, which resembles the C programming language syntactically. By default, the percent (%) sign on the terminal displays the C shell. The executable filename is .csh.
cal
The cal command lets you to display a calendar for any year from 1 A.D. to 9999 A.D.
calculators
The calculators dc and bc allow you to perform various computations on the screen. The dc calculator is a simple desktop calculator, while the bc calculator is a much more sophisticated and precise mathematical tool.
cat
This command is used to display a file on the screen.
cd
You use this command to change directory.
chomd
You use this command to set file permissions.
command mode
In the command mode of the vi editor, single letter commands, which are not displayed on the screen, are accepted. This mode is entered by pressing the Esc key. By default, the vi editor opens in the command mode.
command redirection
Command redirection is the process of receiving input or sending output to something other than the standard input and output devices.
command text files
These command text files are ASCII files that are used to provide commands to your command interpreter.
Common Applications Environment (CAE )
The Common Applications Environment (CAE) addresses the operating system interface, data management, and languages.
compress
You use this command to compress a file.
computer network
A computer network is a collection of computers and peripheral devices connected by communication links that allow the network components to work together.
cp
You use this command to copy files.
current directory
The current directory is that in which you are currently working. When you log in, your current directory is your home directory.
cut filter
The cut filter is used when a file has to be queried to display selective fields from a file. Every line in the file is viewed as a record and the words constituting it as fields. The field is taken as a character string ending with a specified delimiter.
dangling soft link
A dangling soft link is a deleted soft link. If the file to which a soft link is linked gets deleted, then the file no longer exists. The soft link now links to nothing and trying to read it gives an error message.
data backup
Data backup refers to making a copy of the data.
data block
Data block is one of four sections of a file system. Also known as a storage block, it stores the contents of a file.
data files
The data files are ordinary files. In addition to ASCII characters, they contain instructions on how those characters are to be treated by an application.
date
The date command displays the system date.
dev directory
The dev directory in the Unix file system stores all the device files.
directory file
The directory file has the same name as the directory that stores all the appropriate information regarding that directory. The information contains a listing of all the files and subdirectories of that directory.
disk usage
Disk usage is the number of blocks occupied by all files and directories recursively within each directory and file stored on the disk.
distributed file system
The distributed file system is a file-sharing scheme that includes both local and remote files and provides transparent access to both.
double-sided, double-density (DS/DD)
Double-sided, double-density (DS/DD) indicates that when formatted, a 5¼ inch floppy disk will hold 360 K or 0.35 MB of data. On the other hand, a 3½ inch floppy disk will hold 720 K or 0.70 MB of data for the PC.
double-sided, high density
Double-sided, high density (HD) indicates that the 5¼ inch disk has a capacity of 1228.8 K or 1.2 MB and the 3½ inch disk holds 1433.6 K or 1.4 MB of data when formatted for PCs.
ed editor
The ed editor is a type of line editor provided by Unix. It assigns reference numbers to every line in a file. Its editing features include appending, inserting, deleting, moving, and copying one or more lines of text.
editor's buffer
The editor's buffer is a buffer created while a file is being edited.
ENV
ENV is a Korn shell environment variable defined in the .profile file. The ENV variable defines where the Korn shell can find an environment file at startup. The environment file found in the home directory is usually called ksh-env and is analogous to the .cshrc file of the C shell.
environment variables
Environment variables are variables used to customize the Unix working environment of your terminal. These variables are stored in a startup file depending on the shell you are using.
etc directory
The etc directory in the Unix file system is used by the System Administrator to store system configuration and user profile information. Most of these files are accessible to the System Administrator only and are rarely modified.
Ethernet
Ethernet is a type of LAN connectivity that uses a simple twisted-pair cable to connect the computers in a network.
exclamation character
Exclamation characters are used by the C shell instead of the pipe symbol to nullify the noclobber command.
executable files
Executable files are programs created and written by programmers in binary code.
execute permission
This permission for a file allows file execution as a program. It is denoted by the letter x.
fgrep
fgrep stands for fast global search for the regular expression and print. You can search for fixed strings using the fgrep command. As the name suggests, fgrep is fast and compact in its usage.
file
You use this command to display file types.
file client
A computer that accesses the files and services from the server computer is called the file client.
file descriptors
File descriptors are unique integers assigned by the kernel to every file it opens. File descriptors provide a short and simple way of referring to files. The standard input, output, and error files have specific file descriptors which are 0, 1, and 2 respectively.
file owner
The user who creates a file is known as the file owner. The owner of a file can perform any operation on that file. The operations include copying, deleting, and editing.
file processing utilities
File processing utilities are services that allow files to be processed in many ways. These include utilities used for splitting, compressing, and decompressing files. They allow you to manipulate available disk space and therefore optimize file storage.
file server
A computer that supplies files and services to other computers is called a file server.
file space utility
File space utilities report the storage limits of a disk. Unix has commands that assess free and used space for hard disks as well as floppy disks. These utilities determine how much space has been used and how much is left free.
file system
A file system refers to the way Unix logically organizes information on the disk for easy access. A file system includes files, directories, and the information Unix uses to keep track of them.
file transformation
File transformation refers to making changes in a file. Changes include removing certain sections of text and copying it at some other place, translating or replacing a character with another character, or modifying the file format while copying the file.
files
Files are the building blocks of a Unix file system. The programs you create, the text you write, the data you store, and all the built-in Unix programs are stored in files.
filter
A filter is a shell command that takes input from the standard input file and writes its output to the standard output file is called a filter. For example, the cat command is a filter.
find
You use this command to find files according to defined search criteria.
finger
You use this command to retrieve information on all users.
finger username
You use this command to retrieve information on a specified user.
floppy disk
A floppy disk is the most commonly used and cost-effective backup media. It stores data randomly.
format
Formatting a floppy disk creates blocks on the floppy. Formatting is required before using a new floppy disk and when data is to be erased from an old floppy disk.
grep
The grep Unix utility enables you to find errors in the C language source code and searches for pattern strings in files.
group owner
A group owner is a group of people who have a set of common rights for a file.
gunzip
You use this command to unzip files.
gzip
You use this command to zip files.
hard links
Hard links are basically pathnames. A single inode number can be associated with other files that have a different filename and are placed in a different directory. Similarly, a single file name can be referred to by multiple path names. These multiple path names are called hard links. Hard links cannot be used to link directory files or to link files across file systems.
HISTSIZE
A Korn shell environment variable defined in the .profile file is termed HISTSIZE.
home directory
Each user is assigned one directory under the home directory where they can store personal files and create subdirectories. The user's home directory created under the root directory where all users of the system are allowed to work can be assigned any name.
home environment variable
The home environment variable is used for setting the full pathname of the home directory of a user. During the login procedure, the operating system places a user in their home directory based on the value of this variable.
id
You use this command to display your username and group ID.
idle time
Idle time is the period during which a machine is not used.
inode list
An inode list is a list of inodes. An inode stands for information node that describes the characteristics of a file and pointer to the location where the data blocks containing the file data are located. This list identifies the blocks that belong to each file.
inode or the information node
An inode is an index of the nodes that store information about a particular file. All administrative details of a file, such as security, modification time, length of the file, location of storage, and permissions are contained in a system structure called the information node or the inode.
input mode
Input mode is one of the working modes of the vi editor in which the text that is entered is displayed on the screen. The input mode is entered by pressing the character a in the command mode.
interactive editor
An interactive editor accepts commands, one at a time, from the user.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) provides error-reporting services so that problems in delivering messages can be discovered.
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol provides the ability to move data between hosts.
Internetworking
Internetworking is a technology that provides a way to interconnect heterogeneous networks and a set of communication conventions. This technology allows computers to communicate independent of their physical network connections.
i-number
The i-number represents the position of an inode in an inode list.
job shell or jsh
The job shell or jsh controls the execution of jobs. This shell is an extension of the Bourne shell and has the capability to handle multiple jobs at a time. The job shell allows tight control over multiple jobs.
kernel
The kernel constitutes the brain of the Unix operating system. It is the layer of software between the shell and the processor. The kernel executes programs by issuing instructions to the CPU. It controls computer hardware, such as the I/O devices, by allocating them to various users and tasks. It manages file systems and files. It also allocates memory, checks hardware resources, and executes programs by managing the CPU time.
Korn shell
Developed by David Korn, this shell combines the best features of the C shell and the Bourne shell. The executable file name is ksh. The prompt used in this shell is the dollar sign ($).
last line mode
In the last line mode of the vi editor, more advanced commands are accepted on the last line of the screen. The last line mode is invoked by pressing the: (colon) key.
lib directory
The lib directory in the Unix file system contains the system libraries used by various programs. The standard C library is one such program.
line editor
A line editor allows the examination of one line of text in a file at a time. Every Unix system has at least one interactive line editor available. The line editor in Unix can be either interactive or noninteractive.
link
In Unix, a single inode is referenced by many i-numbers. Each i-number is called a link. The link field of the inode gives the total number of i-numbers that reference that inode.
Linux
Linux is a scaled-down version of the Unix operating system that can be installed on laptops and PCs.
local area network (LAN)
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network with communication range usually confined to a small area, such as a building or a cluster of buildings.
login name
A login name is a unique identification name given to each user permitted to work on the Unix operating system. Also called the username, it is initially assigned by the System Administrator. This login name is entered in response to the login prompt.
logname variable
This environment variable specifies the login name of the user using the shell.
lp
This is a System V command. The common options of this command are -d and -n. You use this command to print a file.
lpq
This is a BSD command. The common option of this command is -P. You use this command to display print queues.
lpr
You use this command to print a file.
lprm
This command is a BSD command. The common option of this command is job number. You use this command to remove print jobs from print queues.
lpstat
The common options of this command are -s, -l, and -t. You use this command to set file permissions.
ls
The common options of this command -a, -alr, and -lrt. You use this command to list files.
make
Make is a Unix program that allows you to maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs.
man
You use this command to look up the man pages for commands.
metacharacter
The metacharacter is one of several special characters recognized by the Unix operating system. The shell recognizes the special properties associated with such characters, also called wildcard characters. The metacharacter feature saves time while working with lengthy filenames.
mkdir
You use this command to create directories.
more
You use this command to display files in a way that they can be scrolled page by page.
MULTICS
The MULTICS version of the Unix operating system permits simultaneous computer access to a number of users so that they can share data easily.
multitasking
Multitasking is a Unix facility by which a user can start a task and then proceed to other tasks simultaneously. The system runs the first task in the background and the second task in the foreground. This activity, known as background processing, increases the user's efficiency. For example, while you are typing a document using a text editor, Unix can print another document simultaneously.
multiuser operations
Unix is a multiuser operating system that supports a number of users simultaneously, allowing them to share processing power and such peripheral resources as printers. Unix also provides excellent security features. In contrast, single user operating systems allow only one person to work at a time.
mv
You use this command to move files.
NetWare
A popular network operating system.
Network File System (NFS)
Network File System (NFS) was originally developed by Sun Microsystems to enable computers of different architectures and running different operating systems to share resources across a network.
networking
Networking is used to link different types of computers within small and large areas. This is a built-in facility in the various Unix programs and utilities that enables users in different physical locations to communicate with each other.
noclobber variable
The noclobber variable avoids overwriting an existing file. By setting the noclobber variable, the Unix operating system displays a message that a file with the same name already exists.
nonenvironment variable
Unlike the environment variable, a nonenvironment variable is applicable to the current copy of the shell only. Such variables are also known as local shell variables.
noninteractive editor
A noninteractive editor accepts commands from a file but does not produce any interactive output.
Open Software Foundation (OSF)
The Open Software Foundation (OSF) is a nonprofit organization involved in research and development. Its primary goals are to define source code reference implementations and specifications, to develop a leading operating system, and to promote a portable applications environment.
ordinary file
The ordinary file contains data that is treated as a single unit by the system. Most of the files created and edited using applications are ordinary files. Typing information, the storage structure of the files, or memory requirements need not be specified in this file.
other users
Other users are users of a system who are not members of a group and do not have any needs for accessing data or programs in common with the group owner.
path variable
The path environment variable contains a list of all the complete pathnames of the directories that are to be searched for an executable program. These names are separated by a colon. When a path is set, the user does not have to change to the directory in which the executable program file is stored. The user can execute the program from any subdirectory.
patterns
Patterns are the sequence of characters to be searched in any particular file.
pipe
A pipe is a Unix utility that connects two or more commands so that the standard output of one command becomes the standard input to another command. Many actions can be specified in a single command line without having to write the code itself.
pipeline
As a pipe always sends output to another command, the result of the piped commands is called a pipeline.
portability
Unix has portability. It can be ported to virtually every type of computer, from minicomputers to supercomputers. It is written in C programming language and is not tied to any specific computer hardware. This implies that software written on one computer can be transferred to another computer so that companies using Unix are not confined to a single hardware vendor.
Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) for computer environments is a Unix-based standard developed by the POSIX committee of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
pr
You use this command to prepare files for printing.
Protocols
Protocols are a set of rules that govern the transfer of data and communication between two or more entities in a network.
ps1 variable
The ps1 environment variable specifies the prompt that the shell displays. The system prompt can be changed by setting the value of this variable to the desired prompt.
pwd
You use this command to display working directories.
read permission
Read permission for a file allows the user to display and copy files. It is denoted by the letter r.
regular expression
A regular expression is a pattern that is searched for in a file. Regular expressions can be used to specify very simple or highly complex patterns of characters. Regular expressions are always enclosed in double quotes.
regular link
The link established using the ln command is a regular link. Unix regards the file names used in these links as the file's real name. These links are also called hard links. Hard links cannot be used to link directory files or to link files across file systems.
relational expressions
Any expression involving comparisons between strings of characters or numbers using relational operators is called a relational expression.
relative pathname
A relative pathname is a shortened pathname in relationship to the working directory position.
Remote File Sharing (RFS)
Remote File Sharing (RFS) is a distributed file system developed by AT&T. Using this system, computers running Unix System V can share resources such as directories containing files, subdirectories, and devices across a network.
request id
A request id is the sequence number given to a print job. The lp command gives you a sequence number and the name of the printer to which your job will be directed. The sequence number represents the request id.
restricted shell
A restricted version of the Bourne shell is typically used for guest users who are not a part of the system and are restricted to work in their own limited environments.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) provides a method for translating hardware addresses into Internet addresses.
rm
The common options of this command are -f and -r. You use this command to remove file directories or links.
rmdir
You use this command to remove empty directories.
root directory
The root directory is the top-level directory of the Unix operating system under which all subdirectories and files are stored.
root file system partition
A root file system partition is a hard disk partition that contains all the system-related files.
SCOadmin
Application that contains tools to manage the system.
SCOhelp
Application that provides documentation on tasks and commands in Unixware 7.
SCO-UNIX
SCO-UNIX is a variant of XENIX that has the option of letting the system randomly generate a password for the user. SCO-UNIX contains a shell program called sysadmsh that allows system administration.
screen editor
A screen editor allows you to view a contiguous section of a file to be edited through a conceptual window. By default, the size of the window is set to fill the screen being used.
sed
Stream Editor (sed) is a utility that enables editing tasks on a large file or group of files. It is used as a filter program to edit data coming through its input stream, hence its name.
shell
A shell is a Unix utility program. By interfacing between the user and the kernel in the operating system, it accepts user commands, interprets them, and passes them to the operating system for execution. The function of the shell is to act as a command interpreter to the operating system.
SMIT
SMIT is the menu-driven command execution utility in AIX. It allows you to use the menu and its suboptions for certain functions so that you do not have to type the complex command on the command line.
soft links
A soft link or a symbolic link allows the use of more than two different names for the same file. It is a file that contains the name of another file and its complete path. It links to a file that is either on a different file system on the same computer or maybe even on a computer machine. These links are also called artificial links because the names of the files are not considered by Unix to be the actual file names.
Source Code Control System (SCCS)
The Source Code Control System (SCCS) is a Unix utility that allows you to manage various versions of the source code.
special files
Special files represent input and output devices, such as terminals, printers, disks, tapes, or communication links. They are found in the standard Unix directories and cannot be read or modified.
standard input
Any typed information is termed the standard input. Typing a command itself is not the standard input. The keyboard is the standard input file. Any input provided using the keyboard is treated as the content of the standard input file.
startup file
The startup file is the file in the user's home directory that is invoked during the system startup. The environment variables are set to the values defined in the startup file.
storage capacity
The storage capacity of a backup media is the amount of data it can store.
super block
The super block is one of the four sections of a file system. Also called block 1, it contains the global definition of a file system.
SVR4
To avoid version problems, AT&T combined the most popular and frequently used commands from Unix System V Release 3, BSD, and XENIX and to produce Unix System Release 4, popularly known as SVR4.
swap area partition
A swap area partition is the hard disk partition for swapping files and processes during input and output operations. This partition is a must for a Unix operating system.
symbolic links
A symbolic link or a soft link allows the use of more than two different names for the same file. It is a file that contains the name of another file and its complete path. It links to a file that is either on a different file system on the same computer or maybe even on a different computer. These links are also called artificial links because the names of the files are not considered by Unix to be the actual file names.
System V Interface Definition (SVID)
SVID is AT&T's definition of the source code-level interface between its Unix System V operating system and its applications.
tape
A tape is a compact medium of sorting, handling, and storing data. It has a storage capacity of up to 250 MB (more precisely 20 million characters per reel) and stores data sequentially.
tar
The common options of this command are cvf, xvf, and tvf. You use this command to archive and back up files.
TCP/IP
Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) technology is used to communicate across heterogeneous sets of interconnected networks.
tee
You use this command to send command output to files and the monitors.
Text Editor
Text Editor is a tool that allows users to manipulate text in files.
text files
Text files contain ASCII characters, the numerical representations of regular letters and numerals. Any ASCII file created in Unix can be read by a PC or a Macintosh word processor because they are not tied to any specific operating system or type of computer. Most ordinary files are of this type.
time sharing
The concept of time sharing allows multiprogramming in Unix. Since there is only one CPU to execute programs, the programs are queued and the CPU time is shared among them. Each program is attended for a specific time and then put back in the queue to await its turn.
tmp directory
The tmp directory is used for temporary storage of files created by the Unix utilities. The contents of this directory are deleted when the system is restarted.
touch
You use this command to create empty files and update the access time.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides a reliable stream of data between transport layers on Internet hosts.
typescript
A typescript is the file containing all the statements typed by the learner and the responses from the system compiled together.
uname
The common option of this command is -a. You use this command to display information on your machine.
Uncompress
You use this command to uncompress files.
UNIX
The Unix operating system simulates the behavior of the file system of MULTICS. It permits different users to share files and combine individual modules into a finished program. Unix is written in a high level language called C. The use of the C language makes Unix portable. Slight modifications to the code allow the programs to be used on different computers.
UnixWare 7
SCO version of Unix.
UnixWare 7 Media Kit
Media Kit containing all software required to install Unixware 7.
unmask
You use this command to set default file creation permissions.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) allows messages to be sent from one application to another even when the destination application is not active.
user file system partition
The user file system partition is a hard disk partition that contains files related to users.
user selectable command language
User selectable command language allows Unix users to give simple names to certain commands to sets of commands to be executed in succession.
usr directory
The usr directory contains each user's home directory. After logging in, the users are taken to their respective home directories.
vi
You use this command to use the visual text editor.
vi editor
The vi editor is much more sophisticated than ed. It is a full screen text editor supplied with the standard Unix system. It does not support document formatting, spell checking, or any views of a document.
Virtual File System (VFS):
A Virtual File System (VFS) provides the general capability in the kernel that allows mapping between any file system types.
w
You use this command to display the tasks that users are currently carrying out on the system.
who
You use this command to display information on users, such as usernames or terminals.
wide area network (WAN)
A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network with communication range spreading across countries or continents.
write permission
Write permission for a file allows a file to be edited. It is denoted by the letter w.
X/Open
X/Open is an international consortium of computer vendors, software providers, and customers. It aims to create and promote a vendor-independent interface standard, which it calls the Common Applications Environment (CAE).
X/Open Portability Guide (XPG)
The XPG or X/Open Portability Guide is a series of publicly available reference documents that define the steps that application developers must take to ensure the portability of an application at the source code level.
XENIX
XENIX is the trade name used by Microsoft Corporation to sell Unix after modifications. XENIX comes in three parts: the operating system, linkers, and text formatting programs and compilers.