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48 Cards in this Set

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pyriform fossa
On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess, (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, or piriform fossa). The fossae are involved in speech. It is significant as a common place for foreign body entrapment and for "packing" of drugs. It is also a potential space for misplacement of an endotracheal tube.
epiglottis
a leaf-shaped cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing.
vallecula
depression between the epiglottis and the base of the tongue.
arytenoid cartilage
form the posterior border of the glottis, and are an important landmark for endotracheal intubation.
Sellick maneuver
posterior displacement of the cricoid ring to occlude the esophagus and decrease the risk of aspiration.
Atelectasis
collapse of alveoli
Which mainstem bronchus is straighter, and more likely to be inadvertently intubated.
Right mainstem bronchus
The primary muscle of ventilation is the
diaphragm
Nervous system control of breathing comes from the
medulla
Innervation of the diaphragm comes from the ______________ nerve.
phrenic
The average adult male tidal volume is _______ mL per breath.
500 mL
The average adult respiratory rate is _____-_____ per minute.
12-20
Respiratory rate X tidal volume =
Minute volume
Gas exchange in the alveoli occurs due to differences in partial pressures causing _____________ of gases across the semi-permeable membrane.
diffusion
Normal ETCO2 is ____-____.
35-45
A pulse oximetry reading less than ____ indictes the patient is in serious distress and requires immediate airway intervention.
85%
Normally our brain receives the stimulis to increase respiratory rate and depth when our _____ level ____________.
CO2 increases
Hypoxic drive is caused by _________. In this condition, the patients stimullis to increase rate and depth of ventilations occurs when _________________.
COPD, O2 levels decrease
The most common cause of airway obstruction is the __________.
tongue.
Eupnea is
a normal respiratory pattern.
_______________ respirations are rapid, deep respiration due to diabetic ketoacidosis.
Kussmaul's
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
progressively deeper, faster breathing alternating gradually with slowing, shallow respirations. This breathing pattern indicates brainstem injury.
Central neurogenic hyperventilation
Deep, rapid respirations due to increased intracranial pressure.
Agonal or apneustic respirations
Shallow, infrequent, irregular respirations.
Biot's respirations
an irregular pattern of rate and depth of breathing with sudden episodes of apnea.
Kussmaul's respirations
deep, rapid breathing commonly seen in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Coughing
forceful exhalation of a large volume of air from the lungs. It serves as a protective mechanism to expell foreign matter from the lungs.
Sneezing
sudden, forceful exhalation from the nose.
Hiccups (Hiccoughing)
sudden inhalation caused by spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm with spastic closure of the glottis.
Sighing
Slo, deep, involuntary inhalation followed by prolonged exhalation. It serves to re-expand atelectatic alveoli.
Grunting
Forceful exhalation against a partially closed glottis--provides positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) to keep collapsing alveoli open.
A pulse oximetry reading of _____% - _____% indicates mild hypoxia.
91 -94% SpO2
Normal pulse oximetry readings are considered anything at or above ______%.
95% SpO2
Pulse oximetry levels equal or less than ______% indicate severe hypoxi and the need for intervention.
85% SpO2
Moderate hypoxemia is indicated with a pulse oximetry reading of ____-____%.
86-90% SpO2
A nasal cannula delivers _____-_____% oxygen when set at 2-6 lpm.
24-44%
At 10-15 lpm oxygen, a non-rebreather mask can deliver _____-_____ % oxygen.
80-100%
To correctly perform the Sellick maneuver, gentle pressure must be applied in the posterior direction over the anterior aspect of the ___________ cartilage.
cricoid
For patients with suspect cervical spine injury, the airway should be opened using which airway maneuver?
Modified Jaw-Thrust
When possible, suction should be limited to _____ seconds.
15
To choose the correct size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the patient's
front teeth to the angle of the jaw.
To choose the proper size nasopharyngeal airway, you must chose one that is slighter ___________than the diameter of the nares, and measure the length from the nares to the ______________ of the ear.
smaller, tragus of the ear
Mouth to mouth or mouth to mask delivers _____% oxygen.
16-17%
BVM ventilations with no supplemental oxygen will deliver _____% oxygen.
21%
Should BVM's used an an emergency setting be equipped with a pop off valve?
No
Flow-restricted, oxygen powered ventilation devices should not be used in which subset of patients?
Pediatrics less than 16 years of age, and patients with chest trauma.
When using colormetric capnometry, which color indicates correct placement?
Yellow
(Yellow for Yes)
The curves laryngoscope blade is also called a _______________ blade.
McIntosh (Curved like the apple.)