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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
seven most important types of air pollutants
1. particulate matter
2. nitrogen oxides
3. sulfur oxides
4. carbon oxides
5. hydrocarbons
6. ozone
7. air toxics
primary air pollutants
1. carbon oxides
2. nitrogen oxides
3. sulfur dioxide
4. particulate matter
5. hydrocarbon
secondary air pollutant
1. ozone
2. sulfur trioxide
nitrogen oxides
1. inhibit plant growth
2. aggravate health probs such as asthma
3. production of photochemical smog/acid deposition
4. global warming
5. depletes ozone in stratosphere
6. cause metals to corrode, textiles to fade/deteriorate
sulfur oxides
1. cause acid deposition
2. corrorde metals/stone/others
3. damage plants
4. iritate respiratory tracts
carbon oxides
1. monoxide: poisonous, reduces blood's ability to transport oxygen
2. dioxide: global warming
methane causes global warming
variety of effects:
1. injure respiratory tract
2. cause cancer
3. no harm
ozone (in troposphere)
1. most harmful component of photochemical smog
2. reduces air visibility
3. cause health problems
4. stresses plants, lower crop yields
5. chronic exposure --> forest decline warming
automobiles produce...
1. nitrogen oxide
2. carbon oxide
3. particulate matter
4. hydrocarbon
electric power plants and other industrial facilities produce...
1. emit most of the particulate matter and sulfur oxides released in U.S.
2. nitrogen oxide
3. hydrocarbon
4. carbon oxides
top three industrial sources of toxic air pollutants
1. chemical industry
2. metals industry
3. paper industry
biologically produced hydrocarbon (isoprene)
1. forms tropo ozone
2. breaks down into carbon monoxide
principle pollutants of industrial smog
1. sulfur dioxide
2. particulate matter
photochemical smog involves what during its formation
1. nitrogen oxides
2. hydrocarbons
main sources of ingredients for photochemical smog
1. automobile
2. bakeries
3. dry cleaners
candidates of temperature inversion
cities located in...
1. valleys
2. near the coast
3. leeward side of mountains
PANs (peroxyacyl nitrate)
1. injure plant tissues
2. irritate eyes
3. aggravate respiratory illness
health effects of sulfur oxide and particulate matter
1. irritate respiratory tract
2. ppl swith empysema and asthma sensitive
health effects of nitrogen oxides
1. cause airway constriction
2. (in ppl with asthma) increased sensitivity to pollen and dust mites
health effects of carbon monoxide
1. reduces blood's ability to transport oxygen
2. causes headaches, fatigue
health effects of ozone and smog
1. burning eyes
2. coughing
3. chest discomfort
4. asthma attack
5. suppress immune system
smokestacks fitted with...remove particulate matter
1. electrostatic precipitators
2. fabric filters
3. scrubbers
4. others
sulfur removed from fuels before being burned by...
coal gasification
release of nitrogen oxides from cultivated fields to which nitrogen fertilizers are applied is reduced significantly when...
no-tillage is practiced
modification of furnaces and engines to provide more complete combustion helps control the production of both...
1. carbon monoxide
2. hydrocarbons
use of catalyic converters to treat auto exhaust reduces what by how much?
1. carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocabon emissions
2. by about 85%
one of the causes of acute respiratory infections is...
exposure to pollutants in biomass fuels when burned indoors
motor vehicles produce about what percent in urban areas of Central America?
60 to 70 percent
motor vehicles produce about what percent in urban areas of India?
50 to 60 precent
five worst cities in terms of exposing children to air pollution are
1.Mexico City, Mexico
2. Beijing, China
3. Shanghai, China
4. Tehran, India
5. Calcutta, India
What percentage of deaths relating to respiratory disease occur in young children living in cities of developing countries?
more than 80 percen