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25 Cards in this Set

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HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus *Attacks the immune system, causing deficiency.
AIDS
Acquired ImmunoDeficiency (sometimes Immune Deficiency) Syndrome
*A complex condition characterized by the collapse of the body's natural immunity against disease.
AZT (Zidovudine)
The first FDA-approved drug used to treat AIDS and HIV infection, Also called ZDV.
ELISA
A screening blood test for the presence of antibodies to HIV. A positive result from an ELISA/EIA test always needs to be confirmed by a second ELISA/EIA test and an FDA-approved confirmatory test, such as the Western Blot.
Infection
A condition or state of the body in which a disease-causing agent has entered it.
Etiology
The causes or orgins of disease.
T-cells
T-cells sends signals to other cells which produce antibodies.
Diagnosis
Indentifying a disease by its signs, symptoms, course, and laboratory findings.
Pathogen
A disease-causing substance or organism.
Virus
An organism that can cause disease.
Latency Period
During this time, an HIV-infected person looks and feels fine, but the virus is replicating and slowly destroying T4 cells and the immune system.
Chronic
Lasting a long time, or recurring often.
Antiviral Drug
Adrug that can interfere with life cycle of a virus. ALso called antiretroviral drugs.
Prophylaxis
Any substance or steps taken to prevent something from happening (example: condoms, vaccines, and possibly antiretroviral therapy)
Vaccine
A substance that produce or increases immunity and protection against disease
Syndrome
A collection of signs and symptoms that occur together.
Asymptomatic
Having a disease but showing no outward sign of disease.
Antibodies
Substance that a person's immune system developes to help fight infection, or indicate that the body has been exposed to an antigen.
HBV
Hepatitis B
*One of several viral infections affecting the liver. The effects of the disease on the liver can range from mild and even inapparent to severe or fatal. HBV is transmitted in the same way that HIV is transmitted. HBV is vaccine-preventable.
Antigen
Substane such as HIV that is foreign to a person's body. Antigen causes the immune system to form antibodies to fight an antigen like HIV.
Incubation Period
The interval between HIV infection and the appearance of the first symptoms.
Immunosuppressed
A condition or state of the body in which the immune system does not work normally.
High Risk Behavior
A term that describes certain activites which increase the risk of transmitting HIV or HBV. These include anal, vaginal or oral intercourse without a condom and sharing injection equipment.
Explain the 4 steps to HIV reproduction in the body:
1.) HIV enters a CD4+ cell.
2.) HIV is a retrovirus, meaning that its genetic information is stored on the single-stranded RNA instead of the double stranded DNA found in most organisms. To replicate, HIV uses an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase to convert it's RNA to DNA.
3.) HIV DNA enters the nucleus of the CD4+ cell and inserts it's self to the cell's DNA. HIV DNA then instructs the cell to make many copies of the original virus.
4.) New virus particles are assembled and leave the cell, ready to infect other CDA+ cells.
What are the seven ways HIV is transmitted?
*unprotected anal, vagainal, and oral intercourse
*Sharing needles
*Mother passing virus to baby
*Breastfeeding
*Transfusion prior to 1986
*Accidental Needlestick
*Sharing Razors, toothbrush