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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
capsid protein
binds cyclophilin A
the three viral enzymes for HIV virus
protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase
RNA genome contains what three genes that code for various viral proteins
gac, pol, env
p23 (vif)
viral infectivity factor (vif)
overcomes inhibitory effect of unidentified host factor, promoting cell-free viral transmission
viral protein U
promotes CD4 degradation and influences virion release
env (gp160)
Envelope protein
1. cleaved in ER to gp 120 and gp41
2. gp120 mediates CD4 and chemokine receptor binding, while gp41 mediates fusion
mediates CD4 and chemokine receptor binding, while gp41 mediates fusion
nef (p24)
(4 things)
Negative Effector
1. promotes down-regulation of surface CD4 and MHC I expression
2. blocks apoptosis
3. enhances virion infectivity
4. progression to disease slowed significantly in absence of Nef
Blocks apoptosis
nef (Negative Effector) p24
inhances virion infectivity
nef (Negative Effector - p24)
contains control regions that bind host transcription facotrs like NFkB, NFAT, Sp1, and TBP
LTR (long terminal repeats)
required for the initiation of transcription
contains RNA trans-acting response element (TAR) that binds Tat
gag (Pr55gag)
Polyprotein processed by viral protease
breaks into capsid, nucleocapsid, matrix, and p6
interacts w VPR; core protein, participates in terminal steps of virion building
p6 ()
encodes a variety of viral enzymes including PR RT and RNAse
pol (polymerase)
viral protein R (p15)
1. promotes G2 cell cycle arrest
2. Facilitates HIV infection of macrophages
facilitates HIV infection of macrophages
regulator of viral gene expression (p19)
promotes nulcear export incompletely spliced viral RNAs
binds cyclophilin A
capsid (p24)
RNA binding protein
nucleocapsid (p7)
undergoes myristylation that helps target Gag polyportein to lipid rafts, promoting virus assembly at cell surface
Matrix (p17)
tat (p14)
transcriptional activator
enhances RNA Pol II mediated elongation of integrated viral DNA
when the HIV virus enters - the genome is ?
it then changes to and how?
RNA then changes intracellularly into Proviral DNA using reverse transcriptase
what happens in the initial lymphoid infetion in HIV
follicular hyperplasia - germinal centers merge w/ interfollicular areas
needed for membrane penetration
In HIV infections cytokine stimulation such as TNF activates what process
transcriptio of HIV genome and transport of viral RNAs to cytoplasm - remember the DNA from which this is transcribed is integrated
Chronic T cell activation can have what three outcomes
1. viral replication in infected CD4+ T cells and cell lysis
2. Activation of uninfected CD4+ cells and apoptosis
3. expression of HIV peptides on infected CD4+ T cells - killing of infected cells by virus specific CTLs
possible acute HIV syndrome, wide dissemination of virus, and seeding of lymphoid organs happens in what week
about 6
when are the viral particles in plasma the most
duriing acute HIV syndrome and after latency (when virus is expressed again)
when is Anti-p24 Ab the highest
during latency
when are CTLs specific for HIV peptides the highest
after onset of initial syndrome on
cell mediated response to HIV is detectable by what week
2 to 3
humoral response peaks at week
yeast like fungus that cuases pneumonia in pts with aids
pneumocystis carinii
cross between endothelial cells and sm muscle cells that appear and Kaposi's
spindle cells
spindle cells in kaposi's sarcoma are stimulated by
cytokines and growht factors secreted by HIV infected T cells or the tumor itself
non hodgkin B cell lymphoma caused by the herpes virus
Kaposi's sarcoma
the most common extranodal site affected lymphomas and an AIDs syndrome
overcomes inhibitory effect of uidentified host factor, promoting cell-free viral transmission
vif (viral infectivity factor - p23)
gene for viral replication in non-dividing cells - arrests cells in G2 and helps with virus replication
influences virion release and promotes the degradation of CD4
vpu (viral protein U )
gene - mtransactivation of viral transcription
lipid bilyaer of virus is derived from
promotes CD4 degradation and influences virion release
overcomes the inhibitory effect of unidentified cell free viral transmission
vif (p23)
viral infectivity factor
promotes nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral RNAs
rev (p19)
regulator of viral gene expression
enhances RNA Pol 11 mediated elongation of integrated viral DNA
tat (p14)
slowed significantly in its absence
Negative Effector (p24)
on capsid
also : promotes down regulation of surface CD4 and MHC 1

blocks apoptosis

enhances virion infectivity

Progression to disease
what gene is responsible for the replication of the HIV virus w/in macrophages
the "gate keepers" of the HIV transmisstion
explain the cell to cell spread in HIV
gp120 binds?
fusion of infected and uninfeted cells to make giant cells (synctia) - the gp120 binds the CD 4
two major targets of HIV
immune system and CNS
what 2 cytokines are thought to play a role in activating transcription of latent HIV in CD4 cells
IL-2 and TNF
explain how monocytes/macrophages are resevoirs of replication and infection
They bud small amounts of virus w/ large numbers of virus particle often in intracellar vacuales but they are resistant to the cytopathic effect of HIV (unlike CD4+)
how does the HIV virus make it to the brain
w/in monocytes (so most CNS HIV is M-tropic)
encodes PR (p10
encodes RT
encodes p32 (IN)