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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mean
Average
Mode
Number that occurs most often
Median
Half are higher, half are lower
FAR
Floor Area Ratio - (Total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain plot)/(Area of the plot)
Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest. “the largest single act of national planning
in our history"
First "model tenement" built in Manhattan.
1855
Homestead Act opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for a nominal fee
and five years residence.
1862
First major tenement house law (N.Y.) restricting physical conditions. SFO prohibits specific obnoxious
uses in certain districts—beginning of land-use zoning in U.S.
1867
Dumbell tenement, NYC, notorious for the poor living conditions it imposed on its denizens (lack of light, air, space).
1879
Building of Pullman, Illinois, model industrial town by George Pullman.
1880 - 1884
Jacob Riis
How the Other Half Lives, 1890, stimulous to housing and neighborhood reform.
First U.S. federal government recognition of the problems of slums and cities (a
survey).
1892
Columbian Expo in Chicago - 400th anniv of the New World. Source of the City Beautiful Movement and
urban planning profession.
1893
Ebenezer Howard
Tomorrow A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, start of
Garden City movement, 1898; 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
First state court support of ordinance/act restricting heights of buildings
1899
New York State Tenement House Law. Outlawed tenements i.e.“Dumbbell Tenement.” Lawrence Veiller.
1901
Letchworth constructed. First English Garden City, stimulus to New Town mvmt in America (Greenbelt Towns, etc)
1903
First local “civic center” plan developed for Cleveland, by Danial H. Burnham
1903
First application of “City Beautiful” principles to a major American city Burnham’s
Plan for San Francisco.
1906
First official, local, and permanent planning board (at Hartford, Connecticut).
1907
First National Conference on City Planning in Washington, D.C.
1909 - conf?
First American use of zoning to restrict future development. Los Angeles creates
multitude of zones.
1909 - zoning?
First State Enabling Act passes
Wisconsin, 1909
Plan of Chicago—first metropolitan regional plan in U.S. (Daniel Burnham).
1909 - Daniel Burnham
First private planning consulting firm, created in N.Y.C. by George B. Ford and
Earnest P. Goodrich (Technical Advisory Corporation).
1913 - firm
First state to institute mandatory referral of subdivision plats (beginning of subdivision control)
New Jersey - 1913
First state to make planning mandatory for local governments
Massachusetts - 1913
First full-time municipally employed planner at Newark,
New Jersey.
Harland Bartholomew - 1914
First state to institute extraterritorial mandatory referral of subdivision plats
California - 1915
writes Cities in Evolution creating the foundation for regional planning theory.
Patrick Geddes - 1915
National Park Service established with sole responsibility for conserving and preserving
resources of special value.
1916
Nation’s first comprehensive zoning resolution adopted by New York City Board of Estimates
1916 - nyc
“Father of Zoning.”
Edward Bassett
Planning of the Modern City.
Nelson P. Lewis - 1916
First federal-aid highway act.
Federal - 1916
First president of new American City Planning Institute, forerunner of American Institute of Planners and the AICP
Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. - 1917
First parkway in America completed - Bronx River Parkway, N.Y
Parkway - 1919
First statewide citizens organization in support of planning - Ohio Planning
Conference.
Ohio - 1919
Vieux Carre Commission, the first historic preservation
commission in the U.S.
New Orleans - 1921
Port of New York Authority. Inauguration of Regional Plan of New York under Thomas Adams.
First bi-state functional authority - 1921
Los Angeles County Regional Planning Commission created.
First of its kind in the
United States. - 1921
“County Club Plaza” in Kansas
City, Missouri.
First suburban auto-oriented shopping center - 1922
U.S. Dept of Commerce under Secretary Herbert Hoover issues Standard State Zoning Enabling Act.
1924 - Federal
First major American city officially to endorse a comprehensive
plan. (Alfred Bettman).
Cincinnati, Ohio - 1925
“Concentric Zone” model of urban structure and land use is published.
Ernest Burgess - 1925
First comprehensive plan to be adopted by the planning board of a major
American city
Cincinnati Ohio - 1925
First public subsidy for housing
State of New York - 1925
Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of comprehensive zoning
Village of Euclid v. Amber Realty Co. - 1926
Standard City Planning Enabling Act.
U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Herbert Hoover - 1928
First “new town” built
Radburn, NJ - 1928
Neighborhood Unit
Clarence Perry - 1929
Results in Great Depression and fosters ideas of public planning on a national scale.
Stock market crash in October 1929
National Land Utilization Conference in Chicago. 300 ag
experts - rural recovery prog & natural resource conservation.
Chicago - 1931
FDR, New Deal, Federal Emergency Relief Administration under Harry Hopkins
1933 - FDR
Home Owners Loan Corporation established to save homeowners facing loss
through foreclosure.
Federal Housing - 1933
America’s first large-scale regional program in integrated economic, social, and
physical development planning by the federal government.
The Tennessee Valley Authority is created - 1933. Fathered by senator George Norris of Idaho
First U.S. National Planning Board created
1933 (abolished as the National Resources
Planning Board in 1943).
National Housing Act. Established FSLIC for insuring savings deposits and the
FHA for insuring individual home mortgages.
Federal Housing - 1934
American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) founded
1934 - (Alfred Bettman, is the
first president).
Greenbelt, Maryland and Greenhills, Ohio forerunners of
present day New Towns: Columbia, Maryland and Reston,Virginia, etc.
1935 - Resettlement Administration established under Rexford Tugwell, Roosevelt “braintruster”
First U.S. federally built new towns in peacetime: the “greenbelt” towns.
1935 - 1937
First major federal legislative commitment to public housing
US Housing Act of 1937
The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities.
Homer Hoyt’s influential
“sector theory” of urban structure - 1937
ACPI renamed American Institute of Planners (AlP).
AIP - 1939
Guaranteed loans for homes to veterans under favorable terms, thereby accelerating the growth of suburbs
Serviceman’s Readjustment Act (“GI Bill”) - 1944
Park Forest, Illinois, and Levittown, New York
Construction began, 1947
First American city to adopt a new comprehensive plan following World War II
Cincinnati - 1948
First U.S. comprehensive housing legislation. Aimed to construct about 800,000 units. Inaug urban redev program.
Housing Act (Wagner-Ell ender- Taft Bill) - 1949
The National Trust for Historic Preservation
Created and chartered by Congress - 1949
U.S. Supreme Court upholds right of Washington, D.C.
Redev Land Agency to condemn properties that are unsightly to achieve objectives of redevelopment plan
Berman v. Parker - 1954
Council of Government movement (COG’s)
Detroit area, 1954
First U.S. federal conservation and rehab program, and first federal 50/50 funding for prep of general plans (“701 “)
U. S. House Act of 1954
defines basic elements of a city’s “imageability”
(paths, edges, nodes, etc.)
Image of the City, Kevin Lynch, 1960
first state to institute statewide zoning.
Hawaii, 1961
a critique of planning and planners - 1961
The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs
First U.S. federal housing subsidy program
Federal housing - 1961
First zoning ordinance for a major American city to introduce “flexible” controls
(such as FAR),
NYC, 1961
a new town halfway between Washington and Baltimore, featuring class integration and the neighborhood principle
Columbia, Maryland - 1963
outlaws discrimination based on race, creed, and national origin in places of public accommodation
Civil Rights Act - 1964
The Urban General Plan
T.J. Kent, 1964
US. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
federal housing - 1965
National Register of Historic Places & Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and req's State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO).
National Historic Preservation Act - 1966
A centerpiece of President Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” program
1966 - Demonstration Cities & Metropolitan Devl Act “model cities” program, an attack on urban blight & poverty
Design with Nature
Ian McHarg - 1969
requires an “environmental impact statement” for every federal or aided major action that might harm environment
National Environmental Policy Act - 1969
established to administer main provisions of the Clean Air Act (1970)
Federal Environmental Protection Agency - 1970
First major introduction of the transfer of development rights (TDR) concept
Chicago - 1971
New York high court allows the use of performance criteria as a means of slowing community growth.
Golden v. Planning Board of Ramapo - 1972
First federal revenue sharing program.
Federal - 1972
First rapid transit system built for fast center-to-center service begins service
(BART—- Bay Area Rapid Transit). San Francisco Bay Area - 1972
proposes national land-use legislation to protect natural resources & undeveloped land
Senator Jackson - 1972
eliminated categorical grants, created block grants
Housing and Community Development Act - 1974
American Institute of Planners (AIP) and American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) merge into (APA).
APA - 1978
U.S. Supreme Court upholds NYC's Landmark Preservation Law,Grand Central Terminal. Not a taking when the interior of the property lucrative use.
Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York, 438 U.S. 104 (1978)
First state to institute statewide zoning
Hawaii - 1978
Anti-New Deal; reduced fed spending, privatization,
deregulation, phase-out of aids to planning/programs
“Reagan Revolution” - 1980
“fair share” of affordable
housing. A precedent-setting decision against racial segregation
Mt. Laurel, New Jersey - 1983
U.S. Supreme Court finds that even a temporary taking requires compensation.
First English Evangelical Lutheran Church v. County of Los Angeles - 1987
US Supreme Court: land-use restrictions, to be valid, must be tied directly to a specific public purpose, rational nexus
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, - 1987
first federal transportation law to mandate planning
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) - 1991
U.S. Supreme Court limits local and state government’s ability to restrict private property without compensation
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council - 1992
U.S. Supreme Court: a jurisdiction must show “rough proportionality” between adverse impacts and exactions
Dolan v. Citv of Tigard - 1994
Canyons of the Ancients (CO); Cascade-Siskiyou (OR); Hanford Reach (WA); Ironwood Forest Grand Canyon-Parashant, Agua Fria (AZ); Grand Sequoia, California Coastal (CA).
Clinton Monuments - 2000