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30 Cards in this Set

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Great Depression
long period of high unemployment and increased poverty, it lasted from 1929 until 1941.
Dust Bowl-
Between 1933 and 1936, the land between the Dakotas and Texas received little rain. Because farmers did not know about stopping soil erosion, wind pick up this dry, loosened soil and spread it across the nation. Huge dust storms blew the precious topsoil away. Farmers refer to this experience and this land as the Dust Bowl.
Herbert
Hooverwas elected president during a time of economic prosperity and received all of the blame when the economy was thrown into a depression
Hoovervilles
communities of tents and shacks built outside the cities by people coming to cities to look for work. In all areas of life, the nation's people blamed Hoover for the economic depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
ran for president in 1932 emphasizing concern for "the forgotten man" and promising "a new deal for the American people." He was enthusiastically optimistic, and people believed in him; he won by a landslide.
New Deal
A series of federal policies and programs instituted by F.D. Roosevelt with the help of Congress. These policies and programs were to boost the economy and put unemployed people to work. It was based on three R's: relief, recovery, and reform.
Wagner Act
created a board to monitor unfair management practices such as fIring a worker who joined a union.
Works Progress Administration
established by Congress to provide jobs for unskilled workers. At one time, the WP A employed one-third of the unemployed of the nation (3.2 million people). The WP A constructed many government buildings during the 1930's.
Gone With the Wind
the most expensive and profitable production of the 1930' s; this movie let people forget their lives and follow the story of love and loss across the war-ravaged South during the Civil War.
Fireside chats
F.D. Roosevelt's broadcasts in which he spoke directly to the nation in order to bypass the press.
Benito Mussolini
came to power in Italy through the people's fear of communism; he called his political ideas "fascism." Mussolini put his ideas into action by banning all political parties, except for the Fascist party, abolishing labor unions, forbidding strikes, and silencing political opponents. By eliminating all opposition, he stopped any communist threat.
National Socialists (Nazis)
this party's leader, Adolf Hitler, preached a message of racist fascism. He claimed that the so-called Aryan race (Caucasian people of non-Jewish descent) was superior and deserved to conquer other nations.
Gestapo
secret police; they helped Hitler suppress those who disagreed with him
Joseph Stalin
forced many peasants from their own land to work on collective farms in order to produce enough food for Russia to feed its people. In an effort to industrialize the nation, he sent others to work in factories. Stalin's efforts failed, and the Soviet Union produced even less food, leading to a period of famine. Even so, Stalin held onto his power with brutal violence.
Rome-Berlin- Tokyo Axis
formed when Italy, Germany, and Japan signed an anti-communist pact
Munich Conference
where the British prime minister and the French premier met to attempt to avoid war through a policy of appeasement, or giving in to Hitler's demands. Here, they ignored Stalin's offer of military aid to Czechoslovakia and agreed to Hitler's capture of the Sudeten1and. In exchange, Hitler promised to claim no further land in Czechoslovakia or anywhere else.
Blitzkrieg
literally means "lightning war," Hitler used joint forces of armored tanks and bombers to achieve this.
Pearl Harbor
surprise attack on this military base that brought the United States into World War II
War bonds
savings bonds used to finance the war
Japanese Internment
Under Executive Order 9066, the United States military forced 110,000 Japanese Americans from their homes and placed them on federal land, including deserts and in swamp, in the nation's interior. The government built primitive housing, sUlTounded it with barbed-wire fencing, and forced the Japanese Americans to live there for the duration of the war.
Battle of Stalingrad
the Germans attacked here because it was a supply center for petroleum, and the Germans needed access to oil refineries in order to continue the war
Dwight D. Eisenhower
general who urged an invasion of German-occupied France across the English Channel
Operation Torch
began in November 1942 when troops from Britain and the United States landed on the beaches of North Africa and began fighting the German army.
Operation Overlord
coordinated by Eisenhower, it was the largest amphibian assault ever undertaken. On June 6, 1944, D-Day, a fleet of 6,000 Allied ships launched the great invasion of the beaches of Normandy.
Winston Churchill
British prime minister who argued that an attack on North Africa should be launched before an attack on France.
Red Army
Soviet troops
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945
General Douglas MacArthur
wanted to attack Japan after Pearl Harbor, but was ordered to retreat from the Japanese and sUlTender the Philippines in May 1942. As he left the shores, he vowed, "I shall return." Manhattan Project - project undertaken by the United States to build the first atomic bomb; this special project involved over 120,000 people in 37 factories and laboratories spread over the United States and Canada. Overall, the United States government spent $2 billion to design and build three atomic bombs
Enola Gay
- the specially equipped B-29 bomber that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, leveling the city on August 6, 1945.
Nagasaki
on August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped here. Over 150,000 Japanese died in the two explosions. Thousands of other civilians suffered sickness and death from the radiation left after the bombing. In the face of these disasters, and the Soviet declaration of war, Japan sUlTendered to General Douglas MacArthur on August 14, 1945. World War II was over.