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26 Cards in this Set

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Who were the Aryans and where were they from?
A group who invaded the Indus Valley from the Black and Caspian Seas.
What was the name of the mountains that Aryans passed through into the Indus River Valley?
Hindu Kush
What was the name of the plain that the Aryans moved into?
Ganges Plain
What was a rajah?
A chief of an Aryan tribe.
What did the Aryans delight in?
Waging war, gambling on chariot races, and singing and dancing at festivals.
What was the basic diet of the Aryans that also served as money? What else did they eat?
Cattle was the basic diet. They also ate cucumbers, bananas, and barley cakes.
What were the Aryan women's rights?
They took part in religious ceremonies and social affairs, and could remarry if they were widowed.
What was the Aryan's spoken language?
Sanskrit
What were epics?
Long poems that celebrated heroes.
What were Vedas?
Holy books that priest wrote.
How do we know about the Aryans?
From Vedas
What is the oldest of the four Vedas?
Rig-Veda
What were varnas?
The four main social classes.
How were the varnas divided?
1) Priests
2) Warriors
3) Merchants, Artisans, Farmer
4) Servants and Laborers
What were jati?
Smaller groups that varnas were divided into.
What did the Europeans name the Indian system of varnas and jati?
Caste system
Who were pariahs?
They did work that was considered unclean, such as skinning animals and tanning hides.
What were dharmas?
Duties of the males who belonged to each varna.
What are the two epics of India?
Poems that addressed the concepts of good and evil.
Who were the three gods of Hinduism?
Brahma, the Creator; Vishnu, the Preserver; and Siva, the Destroyer.
What were the Upanishads?
Writings that said all living things have souls.
What is reincarnation?
The rebirth of the soul.
What does karma say?
How a person lives his or her life determines their future.
What does ahimsa require?
The believer to protect humans, animals, and plants and insects.
What is moksha?
Release from the pain and suffering of rebirth after rebirth.
What was Jainism and who founded it?
A religion that rejected sacrifices and social divisions that was founded by Mahavira.