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22 Cards in this Set

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rock:lithosphere::soil: ________
pedoshpere
Soil Horizons A, E, and B are known as...
Solum
A verticle section of the soil through all its horizons
Soil Profile
A layer of soil that differs in properties and characteristics from adjacent layers, approx. parallel to the surface
Soil Horizon
Loose earth laterial above solid rock
Regolith
Surface Soil
Topsoil (usually O and A horizons). A horizon is also called the plow layer.
Soil layers that underlie the topsoil
Subsoil
A 3-D body of soil with lateral dimension large enough to permit the study of horizon shapes and relations.
Pedon
Chemically weathered rock from which soil forms.
Parent Material
Solid rock and horizon designation.
Bedrock; R
Bedrock that has been weathered in place to the point that it is porous.
Saprolite
Master Horizons
-Organic horizon on the soil surface
O Horizon
Master Horizons
-Horizon high in organic matter, but composed of mineral soil
A Horizon
Master Horizons
-subsurface horizon light in color due to leaching
E Horizon
Master Horizons
-Subsurface horizon from soil forming processes
B Horizon
Master Horizons
-Least weathered and deepest of all the horizons
C Horizon
Master Horizons
- Bedrock
R Horizon
4 soil components?
(ideal percentage)
Solid
1) Mineral (45%)
2) Organic Matter (5%)
Pore Space
3) Water (25%)
4) Air (25%)
-minerals that have not been altered chemically since depositoin
-result from decomposition of primary minerals
-primary mineral


-secondary mineral
a transitory component of soil.
made up of decomposed plant and animal residues.
organic matter
functions of organic matter (4)
1.Stabalizes soil structure
2.Increases the amount of water a soil can hold
3.Major source of plant nutrient
4.Main food/energy for soil orgs
Soil Air (5 things)
-high spatial variability
-high temporal variability
-High moisture content
-High CO2 content
-Loz O2 content