Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Define aging?
2. What are the major mechanisms are currently thought to form the cellular basis of aging?
1. Aging is defined, as gradual changes in structure and function, which occur with the passage of time, do not result from disease or trauma, and cause increasing probability of death. The time course of aging is determined by both genetic and environmental factors.


1. Damage to information macromolecule (DNA & RNA)
-increase in mutations and chromosomes anomalies with age
-errors in duplication of DNA increase with age results in abnormal mRNA and protein molecules

-Wear and tear
-Toxins Manufactured by cells (Free radicals)

-External Factors-UV irradiation
-Background irradiation
-Physical use

4. Programmed Aging
-Normal expression of genetic program that begins at conception
-Biological clock in cells that dictate life span

Molecular Gene Theories

Codon restriction:- Fidelity/accuracy of mRNA translation is impaired due to inability to decode codons in mRNA

Error catastrophe:-Fidelity of gene expression decline with age, resulting in increased fraction of abnormal proteins

Somatic mutation:- Accumulation of molecular damage, primary to DNA/genetic material

Dysdifferentiation:- Gradual accumulation of random molecular damage impairs regulations of gene expression

Gene regulation:-Ageing caused by changes in gene expression regulating both aging and development. Gene expression protein folding and activity

Cellular theories
Free radical
Wear and tear

Oxygen free radicals generated cause cumulative oxidative damage, resulting in structural degeneration, (apoptosis), functional decline, and age-related diseases.
Describe the Multiplicity of changes in CNS Aging?
1. What are the external changes?

2. What are the internal changes?
1. External Changes
These include a gradual thickening and fibrosis of the meninges and dura, focal calcification of leptomeninges and formation of plaques of bone in the spinal leptomeninges.

a. Cerebral Atrophy: The weight of the brain reaches its peak of approximately 1.4 kg in the early 20s and then undergoes a slow decline. By age 80, the loss reaches 7%, or about 100grams. This weight loss is accompanied by a reduction in the cortical area brought about by the broadening of the sulci and the flattening of the gyri.

2. Internal Changes
Of the internal structures, the basal ganglia and ventricular system most often show changes in the elderly. In the basal ganglia, it is common to find thickening of the walls of small perforating arteries and dilated perivascular spaces.
1. What happens to Locus Coerulus in the human brain?

2. What are the functional alterations in the cerebrum due to aging?
1. Locus Coeruleus cell loss in the aging human brain.

2. A decrease in cerebral blood flow
A reduction in oxygen utilization by cerebral tissues
A reduction in glucose utilization by cerebral tissues
An increase in Cerebrovascular resistance
What are the 4 major functional changes in the aging brain?
1. Cognitive
2. Emotional
3. Aging of Reflex
4. Aging of Senses
Other Aging related functional changes..
-balance and posture, gait and tremor

1. Cognitive Functioning
many show a mild decline in memory and cognitive abilities, and some develop dementia.

Cutaneous senses:- sensitivity to touch is decreased
Proprioception:-require greater angular movement

Special senses:-
Vision (presbyopia- change in accommodation power of the eye)
Presbycusis (decrease in ability to perceive sound)
Decrease sense of smell and taste

Vestibular function:-loss of hair cells of cristae ampullaris
Balance and posture:-Exaggerated sway
Sleep disorder:-insomnia, sleep-awake disturbances

2. What are the symptoms of ALS?
1. SEE DIAGRAM. The causes of ALS is unknown.

2. The symptoms of ALS are:

Stumbling and falling
Loss of muscle control
Loss of strength in hands and arms
Difficulty speaking, swallowing and/or breathing
Chronic fatigue
Muscle twitching and/or cramping
Spasticity, fasciculations, and clonus
Muscular atrophy
Describe Parkinson's disease?
1.Describe Alzheimer’s disease ?

2. What Is Dementia?
1. Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills.

Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease:

Dr. Alois Alzheimer:- 1907 identified AD
Neurofibrillary tangles
Neuritic plaques
Free radicals & toxic metals (iron, zinc and aluminum
Virus & prion

2. When memory loss and related symptoms affect our ability to function on a day-to-day basis, and are progressive, this is called dementia. Common symptoms of mild to moderate dementia include:

–Progressive short term memory loss
–Forgetting names of familiar people
–Difficulty finding words
–Mild, usually transient, disorientation
–Changes in personality
–Decrease reasoning ability, poor insight, lack of judgment
Describe the histological changes in patients with alzheimers disease?
-Significant cell loss in the basal nucleus of Myenert (substantia innominata), cortex, and areas of limbic system and brainstem (LC)

-Hippocampus (CA1), subiculum, etirhinal cortex and basal ganglia

-Glial replacement (gliosis) in regions of neuronal loss is common

-Perivascular amyloid (Beta-amyloid fragments come together in clumps to form plaques)