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25 Cards in this Set

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Skin
How does basic structure change w/ aging?
Flattening of dermo-epidermal interface makes shearing easier btwn epidermis and dermis
Skin
What happens to ability to suntan and why?
Ability to suntan decreases b/c number of melanocytes decreases = pallor
Skin
Net effect of dermal fibrous rearrangements/alterations?
Skin is:
Less stretchable
Less resilient
More lax
Prone to wrinkling
Skin
Effects of sunlight in aging?
Increased skin coarsening, wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, laxity and telangectasia
Vision
What happens to periorbital tissues?
Atrophy, leading to probs w/ tear production and drainage
Vision
What happens to pupils in aging?
Pupil becomes smaller and more sluggishly responsive b/c of increased rigidity of iris.
Vision
What happens to the vitreous humor in aging? Results of this change?
Vitreous humor AND body shrink causing perception of flashes of light
Hearing
Changes in external ear with aging?
Atrophy and thinning of walls, drying of cerumen
Increases probability of impaction impairing hearing
Hearing
Changes in middle ear with aging?
Thickening of tympanic membrane
Degeneration of ossicular jts
BUT sound transmission is usually preserved
Hearing
Changes in inner ear with aging?
Loss of hair cells on organ of Corti
Loss of cochlear neurons
Stiffening of basilar membrane
Calcification of auditory mechanisms
Degeneration of spiral ligament
LOSS of high AND low freq hearing
Taste
Changes in lingual papillae with aging?
Decrease in number cause loss of perception of salt and bitterness
GI
Changes in chewing mechanism in aging? Results of changes?
Less effective chewing = swallowing of larger pieces of food
Less coordination of mechanism
Old people more prone to choking ESP if using dentures
GI
Changes in appetite in aging?
Adaptive relaxation to food boluses is impaired, leading to the sensation of satiety w/ smaller quantities of food
GI
Changes in small intestine with aging?
Impaired motility
Impaired absorption of calcium, iron, lactose, xylose, vit. D
Faster absorption of lipid soluble cmpds: cholesterol and Vitamins K, A
GI
Liver changes with aging?
Liver mass decreases w/ age.
Synthesis of Vit. K dependent clotting factors and other proteins decrease
Pulmonary
Changes in basic pulmon structures w/ aging?
Diameters of trachea, central bronchi, and alveolar ducts INCREASES. Loss of lung parenchyma = decreased surface area for gas exchange
Pulmonary
Changes in lung functional structure w/ aging?
Lung elasticity and elastic recoil DECREASE = increased work of expiration
Pulmonary
Changes in functionality w/ aging?
functional reserves DECREASE
FVC and FEV1 DECREASE
residual volumes INCREASE
TLC = unchanged
Cardiovascular
Anatomic changes w/ aging?
LV muscle mass INCREASES
sinus node cells DECREASE
calcium deposition in valves
CV
Changes in function w/ aging?
intrinsic sinus rate DECREASES
PR intervals INCREASE
supraventricular ectopy Increa
Ventricular ectopy Increases
Ejection fraction unchanged
Response to exercise Decrease
CV
Pressure differences with aging?
Systolic BP Increases
Diastolic BP increases btwn 35-60 and flattens/decreases later in life
Renal
Changes in structure w/ aging?
Parenchyma declines linearly w/ age --> mostly cortex
Nephrons w/ longest loops (maximal concentrating ability) preferentially lost
Renal
Changes in GFR w/ aging?
GFR may stay the same or increase/decrease
Linear decrease of creatinine clearance with aging
Renal
Changes in BP maintenance w/ aging?
Decreased renin response to volume depletion or salt retention
Renal
Changes in hormonal effects w/ aging?
hydroxylation of Vit. D decreased
metabolism of PTH, calcitonin and glucagon decreased
EPO unchanged