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18 Cards in this Set

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Name some of the aspects of memory that decline with aging.
the ability to encode, store and recall information is typically reduced in older adults, in addition, the decline in memory affects recent memory more than immediate or remote.
Define Superior Aging
This may be said to by enjoyed by rare individuals, it is defined as "peak performance" reached at some point during adulthood.
In age appropriate decline, scores are, what?
they remain within the range that is normal for the age. This is also called age-associated memory impairment, benign senescent forgetfulness, and age-associated cognitive decline.
Someone is said to be exhibiting Mild Cognitive Impairment if their scores are _____ _______ age adjusted norms on standardized tests but _____ ____ impairment.
significantly below, without ADL
In Dementia, the deterioration interferes with memory and what?
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
Neurons can grow to be as old as their "owner". What does this imply?
Each neuron is exposed to the cumulative effects of biological wear and tear throughout life. Maybe it's true, what doesn't kill ya makes you stronger?
Aging depends on the interaction of what 3 variables?
Time, DNA (genetic background) and stochastic encounters with stress, hypertension, oxidation, trauma etc.
Aging itself may not cause age-related changes, but may increase/decrease the likelihood of encountering them.
increase
It is difficult to differentiate the inevitable consequences of aging from the cumulative (but preventable) impact of ______ ______.
stochastic events. Doing so within the context of time is a very complex operation.
True or false, normal aging is fairly consistent across individuals?
False. Normal aging is characterized by a high level of interindividual variability.
True or False. The rate of atrophy in the aging brain increases as we age.
False-in the healthy aging brain (healthy being the operative word) the rate is consistent and healthy aging is associate with some loss of brain volume.
True or False. "Old" brains have lost a lot of neurons and myelination is almost completely halted by the 7th decade.
False. The loss of neurons is not massive and cortical myelinations has been shown to increase in the 7th decade of life.
Does the "old" brain retain plasticity?
Yes, there is considerable potential for structural plasticity (I see this as hope for all of us!)
Yes-we do lose neurons, but there are still lots left. Changes often associated with aging may be the result of preventable stochastic events.
Still-as an aging population we remain vulnerable to dementing processes/diseases
Other forms of MCI exist, so MCI emphasize memory loss is called ________
Amnesic MCI
True or False. Individuals with a diagnosis of MCI will have the same outcome.
False. they won't necessarily have the same outcome because etiologies may be different (DLB, FTD, etc.)
MCI evolves into _______ at the rate of _____ per year.
dementia; 10-15%. normal is 1-2% per year. rapid decline is associated with presence of APOE4, atrophic hippocampi on MRI.
True or False. There is currently no known effective treatment of MCI.
True. But, cholinesterase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents and anti-oxidants (e.g. vitamin E) theoretically make sense. Also used, NMDA receptor antagonists.