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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When moving and herding cows what should you do?
>act calm
>walking pace
>safe to approach shoulder
>use shoulder to move animal
Why do you not use tail restraint with cows?
vertebrae is fragile
What is a tail jack used for?
discourages kicking
What is a tail tie used for?
keeps the tail up for rectal exams, etc
What is used for leg restraint in cattle?
What is casting?
gently dropping the cow using ropes into sternal or lateral recumbency
**pressure points makes animal drop**
What should you get on the history of cattle?
>how many affected
>how long
>any Tx given
>vaccine Hx
What should be looked at during a visual exam from a distance?
>general demeanor
What is the normal TPR of a cow?
T - 100.4 - 103.1
P - 40-80
R - 10-30
How do you assess hydration on a cow?
Normal CRT = 1-2sec
MM - vulva, gingiva, conjunctiva, nostrils
How many rumen contractions should you auscult in a cow?
How do you assess for bloat?
look at the changing shape of both sides of the cow
**pear to apple**
What does papple shape refer to?
the left side resembles an apple and the right side a pear
A normal cow has ______ bowel movements a day?
On a calm cow how do you give oral medication?
>reach over top of head and press on hard palate
>insert over base of tongue
>avoid raising head
What is an intramammary infusion?
infusing medication into a teat
Why do you milk the cow before giving a intramammary infusion?
>gives better tissue contact
>need to empty mammary gland
What is the gestation period of cows?
283 days (276-295)
What signs does a cow give prior to parturition?
>rear muscles & ligaments soften
>tail head raised 24-48hrs
>vulva swollen, thick discharge
>mammary gland enlarge
What is labot?
stages w/ behavioral changes
What signs of behavioral changes does the cow show during labot?
>kicking at side
When is a cow considered to be experiencing dystocia?
straining for greater than 1 hour
When should the placenta pass?
by 12 hours
When is the placenta considered retained?
greater than 24 hours
What should you look for if you are there for calving?
>breathing - clear airway
>fetal membranes removed
>dip umbilicus
When should a calf stand and nurse?
within 1-2 hours
How much colostrum should the calf get in the first 12-24 hours?
10-15% body weight
What is meconium?
first feces
When should meconium occur?
within the first 24 hours
Why is it important for the meconium to pass?
will get colicky if it doesn't
What is the most common vein to obtain a blood sample in cows?
jugular vein
95% of mastitis is due to what two bacteria?
>streptococcus agalactiae
>staphylococcus aureus
What are the two categories of mastitis?
Why do you dip the teats after milking?
>prevent possible infection
>the orifice is open for 1-2 hours
What causes milk letdown?
What prevents milk letdown?
**stress, noise, strange people**
What is determined in the California Mastitis Test?
Somatic cell count
An orange metal tag in the right ear and a tattoo in the inner pinna indicates?
brucellosis vaccination
When can you detect pregnancy in a cow during rectal palpation?
early as 25-30 days
A pig is considered what?
male or female under 120lbs
A hog is considered what?
a male or female over 120lbs
What is the term for a young preweaning pig?
What is the term for intact female pig?
What is the term for intact male pig?
What are signs of swine being overly stressed?
What can be used to "herd" swine?
>hurdle board
>light cane
A hog snare should be used for no more than _____ minutes?
20-30 (book)

**Yates - few minutes**
Why should a hog snare only be used on adults?
piglets faces are too soft
What are the types of restraint that can be used on swine during standing restraint?
>hog snare
>snubbing rope
>rope harness
Swine are ______ to anesthetize and sedate?
What can you examine on swine?
only things on the surface
What is the normal TPR of swine?
T - 101.1 - 103.5
P - 60-90
R - 10-24
What is are the sites for IV injection in a pig?
What is are the sites for IP injection in a pig?
>lower abdo
>caudoventral abdo
>paralumbar fossa
What is are the sites for IM injection in a pig?
neck muscle
What is are the sites for SQ injection in a pig?
What is the intranasal site used for in pigs?