Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the cortex and medulla?
filter blood and creates urine
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Nephron
The start of urine formation is where?
Bowmans Capsule
What passes through Bowmans Capsule?
Glucose, nitrogenous waste
What does not pass through the Bowmans Capsule?
Blood
What is the function of the Glomerulus?
-filtration
-reabsorbtion of glucose
-uria secreted
What is the function of the kidney tubules?
-collects & dumps toxins
-reabsorbs valuable items (glucose & water)
What are the 4 ways to obtain urine samples?
1 - voided
2 - expressing bladder
3 - catheterization
4 - cystocentesis
What is the gold standard of getting a urine sample?
cystocentesis
What is the best way of getting a voided urine sample?
-midstream
-morning sample
When do you need to analyze urine?
within 30 minutes or refrigerate 6-12 hours
What happens to urine if it stands to long?
-urine disintegrates
-artifacts appear
-temp and pH change
-crystals
If urine is refrigerated what should you do before analyzing it?
bring back to room temp
What are some non-pathological changes to urine?
-water intake
-temp
-humidity
-activity
-diet
What are some pathological changes to urine?
-polyuria
-pollakuria
-oliguria
-anuria
What is polyuria?
-increased volume
-pale
-low SG (often due to polydipsia)
What is pollakuria?
-frequent voiding
-small amounts
What is oliguria?
-decreased volume
-more concentrated
-high SG
What is anuria?
-total lack of production
Herbivores have ____ colorful urine.
more
Red color in the urine is due to?
blood from RBC or hemoglobin
Green color in the urine is due to?
-drugs
-liver failure
Brown or black urine in horses is due to?
oxidation
Transparency of urine is the amount of cloudiness due to?
cells, casts or bacteria
What is flocculant?
gross chunks in urine
Blood cells make urine transparency?
cloudy
An ammonia smell to urine is due to?
uria
A sweet smell to urine is due to?
ketones
Excess foam indicates?
protein
Specific gravity measures?
density
What influences SG?
-water
-solutes
-renal uria
-minerals
-non-renal glucose
What is the normal SG for dogs?
1.018 - 1.045
What is the normal SG for cats?
1.020 - 1.040
A pH <7 is?
acidic
A ph >7 is?
alkaline
Herbivores have what pH urine?
alkaline (basic)
Normal carnivores have what pH urine?
acidic
The color change in test strips measures what for protein?
albumin
Microalbuminuria is a early indication for?
renal disease
Changes of glucose in urine can be due to what?
-excitement
-restraint
-IV fluids
-stress
-fear
Bile pigments are?
breakdown of HgB
Bile pigments are processed in?
the liver
Bile pigments are excreted in?
bile
Bile pigments funtion is to?
help dissolve and digest fats
What are some reasons for bilirubinuria?
-liver disease
-bile duct obstruction
-RBC destruction (DIC, immune hemolytic anemia)
A low urine threshold is?
any elevation of spill out into urine
A high urine threshold is?
won't easily spill out into urine
Dogs commonly have a ____ urine threshold?
low
Cats have a ____ urine threshold?
high
Detection of bile pigments can be done with?
dip stick or ictotest
What does nitrate in urine suggest?
bacterial infection
What do erythrocytes look like in urine sediment?
-smooth, round
-red, orange (clear on standing)
How many erythrocytes per HPF?
<2-3/HPF
Increased amounts of erythrocytes are indicative of?
-hemorrhage
-reproductive female
-urinary trauma
-males - prostate
What do leukocytes look like in urine sediment?
-granule like appearance
-little larger than RBC
How many leukocytes per HPF?
0-1/HPF
Increased leukocytes are indicative of?
-inflammation
What are the types of epithelial cells found in urinary sediment?
-Squamous epithelial cells
-Transitional epithelial cells
-Renal epithelial cells
What do squamous epithelial cells look like?
-large & angular
-big distance b/t edge of cell and nucleus
-small round nucleus
Where do squamous epithelial cells come from in urine sediment?
-distal urethra
-vagina
-vulva
-prepuce
What do transitional epithelial cells look like?
-round, granular
-nucleus larger compared to size of cell
-more rounded
-larger than WBC
Where to transitional epithelial cells come from in urine sediment?
-renal pelvis
-proximal urethra
What does an elevated amount of transitional epithelial cells indicate?
-cystitis
-pyelonephritis
-infection or inflammation anywhere form bladder to renal pelvis
-traumatic catheterization
What do renal epithelial cells look like?
-round, large nucleus
-non-granular cytoplasm
-similar in size to WBC
Renal epithelial cells come from what in urine sediment?
kidneys
Casts are formed in?
renal tubules
Casts are more likely to form when?
-increased urine concentration
-low pH
An abnormal amount of casts is indicative of?
renal disease
What are the types of casts?
-Hyaline
-Granular
-epithelial
-erythrocyte
-leukocyte
-waxy
-fatty
Crystalluria is determined by?
-pH
-concentration
-temp
-solubility
What are the types of crystals?
-triple phosphate (struvite)
-amorphous phosphate
-ammonium urate
-calcium carbonate
-calcium oxalate
-amorphous urates
-uric acid
-cysteine
-ammonium biurate