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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
If there is no pain present what activities will a dog do?
If there is no pain present what activities will a cat do?
Sleep Curled Up
Unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.
Absence of pain in the presence of stimuli that would normally be painful.
Absence of all sensory modalities; the inability to perceive painful stimuli.
What is hyperesthesia?
increased sensitivity to stimulation
What is multimodal or balanced anesthesia?
use of 2 or more analgesic agents that differ in their mechanism of action to achieve more effective analgesia
The reception, conduction and CNS processing of nerve signals generated by the stimulation of nociceptors.
Naked afferent nerve ending preferentially sensitive to a noxious stimulus or a stimulus that would become noxious if prolonged.
What is referred pain?
pain felt in a body part other than that in which it originates
Pain from skin, SQ, muscles, bones and joints characterized as stabbing, throbbing or aching is?
Somatic pain
Pain from internal organs characterized as cramping, burning, and gnawing is?
Visceral pain
What is windup?
The buildup of chemical mediators during surgery that the animal becomes aware of post-op
What is pre-emptive analgesia?
establishing analgesia BEFORE the onset of pain
How do you prevent windup?
pre-emptive analgesia
What are some cardiovascular signs of pain and/or distress?
>Increased HR and BP
>pale MM
>Increased CRT
>Cool extremities
What are some respiratory signs of pain and/or distress?
>rapid, shallow breaths, panting
>Decreased tidal volume
What are some Digestive signs of pain and/or distress?
>Wt loss
What are some musculoskeletal signs of pain and/or distress?
>unsteady gait
What are some urinary signs of pain and/or distress?
>reluctance to urinate
>loss of house training
What are some laboratory signs of pain and/or distress?
>increased WBC
>increased lymph
>increased glucose
>increase PCV
>increased cortisol
>increased catecholamines
What are the 3 methods of pain control?
1. Endorphins
2. Non-pharmacological
3. Pharmacological
What are some non-pharmacological ways of pain control?
>massage therapy
>cold/hot therapy
>physical therapy
>non-traditional - magnetic, homeopathic,herbal, acupuncture
Morphine is used for both a _______ & _______?
Morphine is used to treat what type of pain?
visceral and somatic
What is the perferred route of administration of morphine in cats?
**prevents vomiting and dysphoria
What is the duration of morphine?
3-4 hours
time released oral - 12hrs
What are some side effects of morphine?
>GI (vomiting, salivation, defecation) - pretreat w/ ace
>histamine release w/rapid IV
>bradycardia (pretreat w/atropine)
>severe respiratory depression
Meperedine (demerol) effect is ______ and lasts only about _______.
1 hour
What is the preferable route of administration of meperedine? Why?
**IM is painful
**IV-hypotension & histamine release
What is the duration of action of oxymorphone?
4-6 hours
Which opioid doesn't stimulate vomiting and histamine release?
What are some side effects of oxymorphone?
>respiratory depression
>paradoxically causes panting
Which opioid doesn't cause excitement in cats?
What is the duration of action of Fentanyl?
30 minutes
What is the duration of action using the transdermal fentanyl patch?
4-12 hours in cat
12-24 hours in dogs
What are the side effects of the fentanyl patch in cats?
>dilated pupils
What are the side effects of the fentanyl patch in dogs?
Butorphanol is used for what type of pain?
better for visceral than for somatic pain
What are the side effects of butorphanol?
respiratory depression (ceiling effect)
What is the duration of action of buprenorphine (buprenex)?
Up to 12 hours
What are the side effects of buprenorphine?
respiratory depression (delayed onset)
What type of pain is buprenorphine useful for?
mild to moderate pain
What is the number one side effect of NSAIDs?
GI ulceration