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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Chronically recurring cerebral dysrythmia originating from an abnormal group of neurons having frequent bursts of abnormal electrical activity which will then spread to neighboring cells and result in a seizure.
At what age does epilepsy commonly occur?
1-4 years of age
What are some symptoms of epilepsy?
intermittent seizures for no underlying reason; unconsciousness; unresponsive, muscle contractions; impaired swallowing; excessive salivation; teeth clattering rapid movement.
What Dx tests are used to determine epilepsy?
complete blood panel and chemistry, MRI, Hx, Age & breed, PE, Cerebral Spinal Tap
What type of seizure is only on one side of brain, more extensive, larger neurons (more cells), smaller muscular activity
Complex partial seizures
What type of seizure has neurons that involve both sides of brain, complete loss of consciousness, muscular activity
Generalized seizures
What type of seizure has electrical activity not jumping back and forth between both hemisphere and no loss of consciousness
Simple partial seizures
Tonic movement is?
continuous muscular activity
Clonic movement is?
contracting and relaxation of muscle
What is the medical term for seizure?
What symptoms occur in the Aura stage of a seizure?
circling, finding hiding space, vocalization, sometimes don’t notice
What symptoms occur in the ictus stage of a seizure?
phase of seizure, muscular movement, loss of consciousness, teeth chattering
What symptoms occur in the Post-ical stage of a seizure?
hide under bed, face wall, not recongnize owner, not come when they are called, many times saliva on face and back, ask owner if anything out of place (anything knocked off table) .
What is status epilepticus?
A seizure with a long duration that is life threatening
What does extracerebral mean?
outside of the brain
What are some extracerebral causes of seizures?
poisoning,hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, heat stroke, organ malfunctions,hypoxia
What type of seizures are caused in the brain?
What are some cerebral causes of seizures?
tumors, head traum, CVA, brain abscess,hydrocephalus, congenital defects
What does High Seizure Threshold mean?
likely to not seizure
What does Low Seizure Threshold mean?
easier to have a seizure
An inflammatory disease of long bones, especially the humerus, radius, ulna, femur and tibia is?
What breeds is panosteitis commonly seen?
shepards, dobies and mixes
Radiographs for panosteitis show?
thickening of end of bone; thick lacey look to medullary canal
A progressive degenerative condition of the spinal cord is?
Degenerative Myelopathy
What breeds is degenerative myelopathy seen in?
German Shepards and shepard mixes
What are the symptoms of Panosteitis?
acute onset of lameness unrelated to trauma: may undergo spontaneous remission of symptoms then relapse in a different limb.
What are the symptoms of degenerative myelopathy?
causes weakness & eventually paralysis of the rear legs
What are the symptoms of cervical vertebral instability
hindlimb incoordination, walking on eggshells, unsteady gait, neck held rigidly, pain may be present, absent or intermittent
Another name for cervical vertebral instability?
Wobbler's Syndrome
The development of a cartilaginous flap from where a piece of cartilage has detached from the joint surface (which is normally smooth); bone or cartilage dried out, decrease of moisture
Osteochondritis Dessicans
What Dx tests are used to determine O. externa?
PE, otoscopic exam, DiffQuik stain, mite check; culture
What nursing care and Tx should be done for O. externa?
Take necessary samples BEFORE cleaning, clean ears w/ cleansing solution, BE GENTLE and don’t further inflame the tissue, apply appropriate ear medications, and treat source of problems.
What part of the ear does O. Media refer to?
The middle ear
What are the causes of O. Media?
extension of O.externa or nose/throat/sinus infection; FB – foxtail; tumor; trauma
What Dx tests are used to determine O. Media?
otoscoptic exam; skull radiographs for tympanic bulla
What symptoms are seen for O. Media?
pain; head shaking; head shyness; head tilt
What nursing care and Tx is used for O. Media?
systemic antibiotics; steroids – 5 day course; dry cleaning of external canal; treat source of problem – foxtail, underlying cause; pain medication; usually don’t need to be hospitalized – only if not eating
What part of the ear does O. Interna refer to?
Inner ear
What part of the ear deals with balance?
Semi-circular canal
What part of the ear deals with hearing?
What are the causes of O. Interna?
infection, extension of otic disease; trauma, tumors, FBs, head trauma, brain damage, brain tumor
What are the symptoms of O. Interna?
pain, circling, head tilt, loss of balance, loss of hearing
What Dx tests are used to determine O. Interna?
symptoms, skull radiographs, neuro exam
What nursing care is needed for O. Interna?
antibiotics; steroids, analgesics, fluids, handfeeding, cage rest for protection; typically require hospitalization w/ IV fluids
What is another name for ear mites?
Otodectes cyanotic
The primary host for mites is?
What are the symptoms of ear mites?
thick black tarry exudate from the ear; highly pruritic (itchy), will present with scratches near ears; pinna red; head shaking; sensitive ears
What Dx tests are done for ear mites?
take swab of exudates and look for mites under microscope
What nursing care or Tx is needed for ear mites?
clean ears daily; apply topical mitecide (1x Tx)
What disease causes inflammation of the skin?
What are some causes of dermatitis?
external irritants, burns and other traumas, allergies, infection, infestation, concurrent disease
What are the symptoms of dermatitis?
Pruritis, Erythematous skin lesions (reddened skin), 2nd infections, pustules, alopecia, scabs, crusts, scales
What is another name for acral pruritic nodule?
Lick Granuloma
What is another name for Eosinophilic Granuloma?
Rodent Ulcer
What causes an eosinophilic granuloma?
chronic dermatosis occurring on the lips, oral mucosa, and abdomen of cats of any age or sex. In dogs – the inguinal area.
Why is eosinophilic granuloma called rodent ulcer?
appearance of the upper lip
What are the symptoms of eosinophilic granuloma?
erythematous, ulcerative and erosive lesions around the lips & face
What disease causes “flow of sebum”?
Dry seborrhea is referred to as?
Oily seborrhea is referred to as?
What breeds are sicca type seborrhea commonly seen in?
setters and shepards, shepard mixes, and dobies
What breeds are oleosa type seborrhea seen in?
spaniel breeds
What can cause inadequate or increased amounts of sebum?
1. Abnormal lipid content of skin
2. Thyroid disorders
3. Fatty acid deficiency in diet
4. Malabsorption of fats
5. secondary condition
The disease that causes a pus-filled uterus?
The type of pyometra where the uterus swells?
Closed pyometra
The type of pyometra where pus drains out slowly?
Open pyometra
What symptoms are common of a pyometra?
Fever (> 104), depression, pu/pd, dehydration +/-, vaginal discharge +/- (yellow or green, thick, odor); eukocytosis; tender abdomen (may or may not be distended)
Disease that occurs in lactating females that become hypocalcemic within 7-10 days of lactation; about a week into nursing puppies?
Eclampsia (milk fever)
What causes eclampsia?
all available Ca in blood goes to milk production
What are the symptoms of eclampsia?
fever, weakness, shaking, trembling, convulsions
Disease that causes inflammation of the mammary glands?
What is the nursing care and Tx for mastitis?
Abs, gentle handling of mammary glands; hot compresses (can hold but must be steaming) – TID for 10 minutes, treat septicemia – IV catheter, IV fluids, IV antibiotics, hand raise or wean offspring
Mammary tumors are more common in _______?
What is the nursing care and Tx of Mammary tumors?
surgery to remove (affected gland or whole chain), Chemo, belly wrap to prevent seroma, clean wound and warm compresses, pain meds
What is monorchid?
1 retained testes
What is cryptorchid?
2 retained testes
Causes by the bacteria Brucella canis?
_______ attacks the organism & transport brucellosis to the lympatic system and genital tract where they multply.
Burcellosis may localize via the bloodstream where?
Intervertebral disks, eyes, and kidney
What are the symptoms of brucellosis?
reproductive disorders – aborting, still births, not able to conceive, low sperm viability
What breeds is intervertebral disk sydrome commonly seen?
Dachshunds and pekes