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130 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the three key features of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
-Lots of water and fertile soil. (Steady source of water)
-Good climate. (Long growing season)
-Lots of people live there. (Densely populated)
Name the three most important rivers of South Asia and why they are important.
Ganges River- Most holy/sacred. Thousands come to purify themselves each year.
Indus River- Site of earliest civilization, over 4,000 years ago. Principal of Pakistan.
Brahmaputra- Creates delta with ganges. Pours in Bangladesh.

***All three important for irrigation.
What is a monsoon? Why is it important?
A seasonal wind that dominates the climate of South Asia.
-They are key to the life of farmers in South Asia. Have influenced art and literature. (Wet-summers, Dry-Winters)
Region largely agricultural.
How did foreign invaders and traders get into India?
Khyber Pass through the Himalayan Mountains. In the WESTERN sections of the mountains.
What characteristics of Indian culture grew out of Aryan culture?
The Aryans were nomadic and warlike people who invaded India in ancient times.
-Eatly Hinduism
-Patterns of village life
-Caste System
Major religion of India?
What are all gods part of?
Hinduisim- polytheistic (millions of god)
Brahman- single supreme force
Rebirth of the soul in various forms
Comes from sanskrit word meaning "to do".
Every deed in this life affects a person's fate in a future life.
Each caste has its own duties or obligations.
Improve position in next life by carrying out duties in this life.
caste system?
A complex system based on class and caste. Based on the idea that they are seperate kinds of caste humans.
Provides stability and interdependance.
Four main castes, plus untouchables. Determined cooking and eating habits, marriage, occupation, gods worshipped, clothes, etc.
Created a sense of stability and order in Indian life.
What weakened the caste system?
The caste system limited oppurtunities for ______ ______.
social mobility
Gap between ______ and ______ still exists today. (india)
law and tradition
Is untouchability illegal?
Is it still practiced in villages today?
What is the goal of a Hindu?
-To end the cycle of birth and rebirth.
-Reach MOKSHA.
-Freeing of the soul to become one with Brahman.
To give up desire
The condition of wanting nothing.
Want to achieve nirvana. Accepted karma and reincarnation. Rejected caste system and existance of gods.
The Mughals were _____ (religion).
Muslim/ Hindu
Mughals ruled India from _____ until British came.
Mughal culture dominated India.
What is a famous architectural example of the Mughal culture in India?
Taj Mahal
Why were there conflicts between Hindus and Muslims?
Muslims- Cows;food, one god;monotheistic, all equal, Qur'an, Heaven/Hell
Hindus- Cows;sacred, many gods;polytheistic, caste system, many religious texts, reincarnation
What was conflict between Muslims and Hindus?
Muslim armes smashed Hindus temples.
What happened when the Mughal power started declining?

How did Great Britain control India?
British moved into India.

Because of the diversity and lack of unity of the Indian people.
British East India Co. ruled from ____ to _____.
What would they trade with India and for what?
What was England most interested in?
Did they eventually gain control?
**Gained enormous wealth from India.
1757 to 1858

Gold and silver for cotton, silk, and tea.

Textiles and clothes

What year was the Sepoy Rebellion?
What happened?
Indians who served in the British Army heard rumors that the cartridges for their new rifles were greased with beef or pork fat.
What were the effects of the British rule (1757-1947?
Positive and Negative.
P: Built railroads, schools, telegraph, irrigation, healthcare, and transportation systems, introduced parliamentary government, etc..

N: Industry declined, locally made goods disappeared, discrimination, British control.
Indian nationalism?
Pride in and loyalty to one's country.
Rejected British rule and demanded independance.
What was the goal of the Indian National Congress?
Gain independance from Great Britain.
What were some of Ghandi's methods? Nonviolent resistance aka..?
How died and when?
Civil disobedience- refusal to obey unjust laws, non-cooperation with the British.
Boycott British goods, fasting.
Assassinated by Hindu fanatic. 1948.
Why was India divided in 1947?
The Muslims feared Hindu domination and demanded the creation of Pakistan for Muslims.
What type of government was India?
Parliamentary democracy- real power in hands of political party that winds the most seats in Parliament. Prime minister is leader of that party.
Coalition government in India?
If no party wins a majority in elections, several parties join to rule.
What is Sikhism?
Sikh seperatism?
A religion that blended Islam and Hinduism.
Sikhs seperatists want to break away from India and form a seperate country (PUNJAB).
How many Muslims live in India today? And do the 2 religions still clash?
100 Million
Who is Nehru? Want did he want?
Indian Leader; led India for 17 years after independance. Wanted a modern industrial nation.
Who is Indira Gandhi? How did she die?
Nehru's Daughter; Prime Minister of India. Assassinated by Sikh bodyguards in 1984.
Who is Rajiv Gandhi? How did he die?
Indira's Son; Elected Prime Minister to replace his mother. Assassinated in 1991.
What did Nehru do to achieve his goals?
Adopted many principles of socialism.
What did Rajiv Gandhi call for in the 1980's?
What did he want to reduce?
What did he also increase?
For economic reforms. He wanted to reduce government regulation and encourage private enterprise. Also in the 80, he increased investment of capital stimulated economic growth.
What was the Green Revolution in India?
Technological advance in agriculture, new types of wheat and rice seeds that resulted in much bigger harvests.
In some ways Indian villages have changed little, but due to _______ some changes have been great. Name 6.
roads, TV's, buses, schools, telephones, clinics...
Who is in the majority in Kashmir? What do they want to do?
Muslims; want to get rid of Indian rule and probably unite with Pakistan.
During the Cold War India was _______ and accepted aid from the ____ and _____.
nonaligned; US and USSR
How did the Soviet invasion from _____ to ______ affect Pakistan?
1979 to 1989; USSR sent troops to Afghanistan.
Pakistan borders Afghanistan and felt personally threatened by the Soviet invasion. Pakistan accepted 3 MILLION Afghan rebels and with the US helped arm and train Afghan resistance fighters.
What were the causes and affects of the population explosion in India?
Better medical care- more people to bear more children, infant mortality declined,

increased population density- put strains on limited resources.
Urbanization in India?
AS people move to the cities things change!
Ex) Role of woman, marriage arrangements, caste system.
Since when did India have nuclear capability?
Does Pakistan also have nuclear weapons?
Where do most Chinese people live and why?
In the eastern third of the country where there is more fertile farmland.
East Asia?
Influenced heavily in the past by _____?
China, Japan, Koreas;
Define ethnocentrism as it pertains to the Chinese in ancient times.
They saw all other cultures as inferior to their own. They believed they were the center of the universe.
What three philosophies were developed in order to create an _______ society.
Describe Confucianism (define Filial Piety), Taoism, and Legalism. And how an orderly society was incorporated in them.
C: 5 Relationships should govern society. Superior person is responsible for the inferior (older over younger, for example). Ruler should provide good government. the FAMILY was the key to an orderly society. Filial Piety: Respect for authority (parents, rulers). Had the greatest affect on social order and political organization in China.
T: Founded by philosopher Lao Zi, emphasized the link between people and nature in order to establish an orderly society.
L: A system of rewards and punishments (started by Han Feizi) would create an orderly society.
What did Confucianism and Taoism have in common with Buddhism?
The goal to establish peace and harmony in society.
How did the teachings of Confucius influence government in ancient China?
He stressed education "learning and practice set men apart". This philosophy came to influence the CIVIL SERVICE EXAM SYSTEM- (exam to work for government)
Who became the most important people in ancient society?
What was the most important value in traditional Chinese and Japanese societies?
What were the life of woman before communism in China? How did the woman gain respect?
INFERIOR! Beatings, slavery, feetbinding, infanticide; couldn't divorce or own property. Left birth family when married.
Woman gained respect as elders.
Since when have communists given women equality?
Since 1950
Chung Kuo? means?
Site of early civilization?
"Middle Kingdom", Believed they were the center of the universe.
Site of early civilization- yellow River, 4,000 years old.
How long was the Great Wall? Why was built?
About 1500 miles of stone wall built as defense against invaders. (Begun over 2000 years ago)
Family of Rulers
Shang Civilization?
China's first dynasty almost 2,000 B.C.
Under which empires did China reach its Golden Age? From ___ to ____
Tang and Song Empires; 618-1279.. China's Renaissance
Which Mongol invaded Chinca and when?
Kubilai Khan in 1279.
What were China's gifts to the world?
Paper, gunpowder, compass, printing, silk, porcelain, abacus, tea, paper money, wine, acupuncture...etc.
During the 1800's China was "divided up" by European countries and Japan into _______ __ ________. How was this possible? (give 2)
Spheres of Influence;
1)Weakness of the qing dynasty due to corruption and backwardness.
2)Military power of European nation after the Industrial Revolution.
What was China's last dynasty?
Where were they originally from? When did they invade China?
Qing Dynasty; Manchuria; 1644
What happened during the Opium war? Did they succeed?
Chinese tried to stop the British from selling Opium in China. China was no match for British.
What was the Open Door Policy in China?
Called for an open trade policy with China. All nations were to have equal access to trade in China.
This policy FAILED.
What was the result of the anger of many Chinese over the aggression of European nations (carved China up)?
The Boxer Rebellion- They rebelled and tried to expel al foreigners, an international army (west) crushed it..
Who was Sun Yat-Sen? What did he help do? Start?
First president of China in 1911 (after Qing dynasty was overthrown). He helped to organize the Nationalist party and start a republic.
Who took over after Qing dynasty overthrown?
Sun Yat-Sen
Was Sun Yat-Sen able to achieve his goals? Why?
No; because civil war broke out with Chinese warloads.
What forced Mao and his followers on the "Long March"?
How long did it last? How many communists died?
Chang Kai Shek and the Nationalist Army launched a campaign to destroy Mao and the Communists.
It lasted a year, over 6,000 miles, and over 80,000 communists died.
How did Mao and the communists win the Civil War in 1949?
Becuase they had the support of the peasants. And the Nationalist party was very corrupt.
How has the Communist Party in China stayed in control?
Because they have a strong dictatorship and have improved the lives of the Chinese people.
What was the Little Red Book?
A collection of the thoughts of Chairman Mao. It was required reading.
What is a proletariat?
An Industrial Working Class- as defined by KARL MARX.
What is propaganda?
The spread of ideas to support a cause- used by Mao to spread Communist ideology.
What did the ______ Leap _______ in ______ call for the Chinese to do?
Great, Forward, 1958,
To modernize.
How did Mao try to achieve the GREAT LEAP FOWARD?
He divided China into communes that controlled the lang and peasents lives. Mao hoped to increase industrial and agricultural production. In fact many quotes were not met.
Why did the GREAT LEAP FOWARD fail?
There were few incentives.
Why did Mao institue the Cultural Revolution in the _____'s.
He was trying to eliminate opposition to his policies.
What were the affects of the Chinese Cultural Revolution?
-Created chaos
-Schools closed
-Production in factories slowed
-Many were tortured or killed
-Ends with Mao's death in 1976
Who became China's leader after the the death of Chairman Mao? In the 1980's he introduced a new policy called the _________ system.
Deng Xiaoping. Responsibility.
How was the Responsibility system differenet from Mao's programs?
In the system, farm families became responsible for making their own living. Peasents sell crops and keep profits (incentives). Deng hoped to increase productivity.
What did Xiaoping hope to achieve with the Responsibility system?
To make China SELF SUFFICIENT in food production. Deng reformed the economy and modernized China.
What did Deng do about trade?
He ended Mao's isolation policy. Encouraged foreign trade and sent Chinese students abroad to study.
What happened at Tiananmen Square in 1989?
Students gathered for proDEMOCRACY demonstration. When protestors refused to leave, the army opened fire killing and wounding several THOUSAND. The BEIJING MASSACRE showed, China's leaders wouldn't allow any threat to communism. China has a poor human right's record.
What about the THREE GORGES DAM? What river on?
Building on the Yangtze River, it has caused relocation of millions of people and will cost billions of dollars. But it will control flooding and produce massive amounts of hydroelectric power.
Taken over by China in 1950. Buddhist area that wants to be free and independent.
Tibet? When taken over?
Taken over by China in 1950. Buddhist area that wants to be free and independent.
China is one of the worlds most ______ developing countries. It has developed _______ and _____ reserves, and _____(verb)____ consumer goods. It has serious ________ problems as it industrializes.
rapidly; oil and mineral; manufactures; pollution
How has Japan's limited natural resources effected this island nation? What do they exchange for needed resources?
Lack of mineral resources has forced Japan to become a trading nation. Developed technology.
More than 4/5 of Japan is mountainous. How does this effect population density?
Coastal cities are extremely crowded. Most Japanese live in small high rise apartments.
How does the mountainousness of Japan effect its food production?
Very little arable land.
Farmland is cultivated intensely.
FISH IS A VALUABLE food source and along with rice are the staple foods.
Early Japanese society was organized around ______ or groups of ________.
How did China's culture influence the Japanese?
Through cultural diffusion and deliberate borrowing of ideas. Japanese based their written language on Chinese ideographs.
What was ancient Japanese society based on?
The power of the military.- exemplified by the samurai.
What system of government developed after the 1100's? How long did it last? (JAPAN)
Feudalism; lasted until the 20th century.
Lord's own land and peasents work land for them.
Local lords ruled the land but they were bound to _______ lords. And who else by ties of loyalty?
Higher;; Emperor
In ______, the ______ closed Japan to the world. This policy of ________ lasted for ____ years.
1639; shogun; isolation; 200
In the 1800's __________ nations forced China and Japan to sign ________ treaties.
European; unequal
In 1853, ______ _______ of the US navy "opened up Japan to the west".
Matthew Perry
Did the Japanese choose to modernize?
Did the Chinese choose to modernize?
Yes; No
Why did the Japanese choose to modernize?
In order to compete with the foreigners.
Industrialization and modernization was only possible after the ______ was removed from power.
What was the Meiji Restoration?
The rule of the 15 year old Emperor when he was restored to power and the shogun was removed.
Name 3 political changes the Japanese went through in order to reform their society and modernize.
1. Wrote new constitution that gave Emperor great power.
2. Set up a new government called a Diet.
3. New court and legal system.
Name 3 economic changes the Japanese went through in order to reform their society and modernize.
1. Built weapons, factories, new modern transportation, and communication system.
2. Borrowed ideas from westerners for new technology.
3. Government aided business.
By 1900, Japan had become a modern industrial nation. Japan set out to gain an overseas empire. Describe the events that occured in the following years..
1895: Sino-Japanese War; Japan defeated China
1905: Russo-Japanese War; gained Korea
How was Japan affected by the Great Depression?
Trade with other nations dropped off, factories closed, and unemployment rose.
What did Japan's extreme nationalists urge Japan to do during the Depression?
They urged a policy of expansion into Asia.
What was the justification for Japan's expansion policy?
The need for food and raw materials.
How did the US respond to Japan's military actions?
The US cut off oil and other supplies to the Japanese.
In response to oil being cut off to them (and other things), the Japanese did what? When? Why?
Bombed Pearl Harbor; December 7, 1941; To destroy the American Fleet
By 1942 the Japanese ruled a huge empire from _________ Asia across the __________ _________.
Southeast; the western Pacific
(JAPAN) Three years later after defeating ________ and ______, the Allies called on Japan to surrender.
Germany; Italy
On _________ _, _____ the first atomic bomb was dropped on _________, Japan, killing more than 80,000 people. A second bomb was dropped on ________.
August 6, 1945;
On ________ __, the Japanese surrendered.
August 14
After the war, the Japanese were aided by ________.
the US
What were the goals od the American occupation forces in Japan?
To destroy militarism in Japan and to build a democratic government.
What were some of the key features of the new Japanese constitution? (after hiro, naga)
-Gave woman right to vote and equality with men
-Stripped emperor of all power
-Gave power to the elected parliament (Diet)
Why is their such fierce competition withing the Japanese education system today?
Many student attend cram schools (called JOKU) to get ahead in order to pass difficult entrance exams and get into best high schools and colleges- guarantees good jobs.
The term "economic mircale" refers to?
With the help of the US, Japan rebuilt its shattered economy and made a rapid recovery after WW2.
List 5 reasons for Japan's success as an economic superpower.
1) Burrowing and improving on modern technology.
2) Encouraging their own inventions.
3) Traditional values, hardworking and loyal employees.
4) Respect for education.
5) Close ties between business and government.
What are problems Japan will face in the future?
1) Pollution
2) Labor shortage due to aging population and low birth rate
3) Overcrowding
4) Costly services for the aging
Japan ______ more than it _____ from certain nations. This causes frustration and anger from its competitors. They say that the Japanese have ______ __ _________ ______ _______.
exports; imports; unfair or restrictive trade policies.
Why do some Southeast Asian nations still distrust Japan?
They feel Japan is using its economic power to dominate the region today. still have bad feeling from Japanese invasion and conquest during WW2.