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28 Cards in this Set

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Founder of the Mouride brotherhood in Senegal. Son of a marabout from the Qadriyya brotherhood. Mystic and ascetic interested in meditation and Koranic study. Considered himself messenger of god. French colonial gov exiled him out of fear. Seven metric tons.
Cheikh Amadou Bamba
one of Bamba's most loyal followers. Har worker and he founded this sect in which physical labor is a form of religious observance and path to spiritual salvation. Nickname Lamp refers to how he became a beacon radiating the enlightenment of the saint.
Ibrahim Fall
THe most devout group of mouride disciples, give up pillars of Islam including prayer and fasting to devote themselves to slavish service to their marabout. Monostic lie - begging for food and signing zikr (songs of rememberance of names of God and founding saint of Mouride) and carrying imags of Bamba with them. Dreadlocks.
Baye Falls
In 1910, finally dawned on French that Bamba was not plotting war and so relations inmproved. Used Bamba as asset to disseminate and enforce policies. 1912 returned from exile. French allowed him to found this holy city and to make a start on the great mosque in which he is buried. He received his famous vision in the wilderness of this holy city and told him of his prophetic mission and of needto build holy city at the site. Free from colonial rule and taxes and duty-free area so commercial hub. Mosque is Ground Zero for Mouride Brotherhood. Mourides consider it as important or more important than Mecca. Pilgrims come here during Grand Magal which is the high point of mass pilgrimage and celebrates Bamba's return from exile.
formed by Bamba, members of the brotherhood vow obedience to their marabouts. Marabouts of this brotherhood usually devote less time to study and teaching than they devote to organizing their disciple's work and making amulets for their disciples (grigri amulets are small leather bundles containing quotes from Koran believed to protect disciplines from harm, sickness and evil). Developed an esp vibrant visual culture in Senegal, and the US. Visualize Islam through wall murals, painting on glass and canvas, lithogrpahs, and many other media dipicting Bamba. Sacred images convey saint's blessing. Those who carry his portrait and adhere to his moral teachings possess a passport to paradise. Solve agri, labor supply and social control for the french colonists problems. Transformed status of slaves and former slaves into disciplined followers. Counter society: domain of autonomy and distance from colonial regime. facilitated french hegemony
divine grace of their brotherhood's founder. sufi, refers to sense of divine presence or charisma or wisdom and blessing from master to pupil. can refer to "breath" but is more often associated with a place or person.
considered to be stewards and inheritors of the baraka. Through the use of their personal baraka, they are considered to possess the power to heal illness and grant spiritual salvation to their ollowers. Most inherit their position and their disciplines from their father. These of any brotherhood are expected to teach andcounsel their followers. Some Mouride holy men are diviners who help their patients by determining the nature of their problems, often throug hdreams informed by the saint. Then they write prayers and geomantric devices (magic squares) in organic ink on boards/papers that can be washed or dissolved in such a way that the patient can drink or wash the with the text. Through this the person becomes the Word and is healed. Others purchase prayer papers that they can wear. Other rent shirts or sleeping sheets with written prayers etc that by wearing or enveloing themselves in any proplem can be avoided or solved.
Means the way, path or method. In sufi tradition of Islam, it is conceptually related to the truth which is the ideal that is the pursuit of the tradition, therefoer it is the path taken to get to the truth. IS a sufi sometimes semi-secret order of Muslims.
Since Berlin Conference, Italy regard Abyssinia as w/in its sphere of influence b/c of Eritrea and Somalia. Deception of the Treaty of Wichale in 1889 signed by Emp Menelik II - differeing Italian and Abyssianian interps. Italians under General Oreste Baratieri, gov of Eritrea, invade w/~25000 men in 1896 but Abyssinian army has 196000 men w/modern rifles *French* and routs the Italians at this location. Treaty of Addis Ababa signed in 1896, Italy recognizes Abyssianian independence. destroyed myth that white armies were invincible,secured ind for decades to come, joins League of Nations in 1923 led by Haile Selassie, gave hope to all Africans longing for ind.
Battle of Adowa
1941 signed by Roosevelt and Churchill declaring that if Allied powers won war tehy would respect the right of all ppls to choose the form of gov under which they will live. Churchill's qualifications about applicability of charter vs colonized ppl's interps of charter. churchill denied suggestion that it applied to colonized ppls outside of Europe, as well as French, under German occupation. But Roosevelt insisted that Charter implied liquidation of British colonial empires as well. Africans interpreted same way and focused on liberatory promise of the wartime effort. Ideology of war fought against Nazi underlined hypocrisy of colonial regimes and encouraged anti-colonial sentiment.
Atlantic Charter
1938 railway workers strike, 1946 general strike in Senegal whose agenda-setting focus is on this - a signel hierarchy for white and black workers
Cadre Unique
founded in 1857 by Louis Faidherbe, governor general of French West africa. he believed taht Africans could be trained to become effective combat soldiers. to this end, he promised his men new uniforms, higher pay, and the opportunity to loot, all proven as powerful incentives. Looking at the situation from anotehr angle, it is clear that he had little alternative but to turn to african manpower b/c of malaria, black water fever and all other diseases to which african had a natual tolerance to.
Tirailleurs senegalais
Africans involved in this Euro conflict from outset of war. played vital economic and strategic role providing manpower and material resources and base for Free French gov under de Gaulle in Brazzaville. to secure needed resources, colonial govs employed force, persuasion, and new forms of state intervention in colonial economies. burden of african participation in another european war heightened African grievances vs. colonial domination. experience of seeing euros killing each other demystification, acquisition of literacy and technical skills, exposure to other colonized ppls and liberation movements (asian nationalism), after war Britain and Franch lost resolve to amintain their colonial empires. Portugal and Belgium hold tight to coloniesafter war. Ghana gained ind fast b/c minor ethnic divisions, wealth, tradition of poli activism, and CPP. French west africa - focus on incorporation into French Union, not ind. ind., RDA, Charles de Gaulle
describes area in central uplands of Kenya, during British colonialism, white immigrants settled there in considerable numbers part. to take advantage of good soils and grwoing conditions and cool climate. Br East Africa colony, 1905, encouraged Br immigration and by time the Kenya Colony came into being in 1920 10,000 br had settled. Settlers got 25% of good land in kenya. Original occupats were predominatntly from Gikukyu tribe, but also Embu and Meru. Three tribes known as GEMA and were active in Mau Mau uprising.
White Highlands
insurgency of Kenyan rebels against British colonial administration that lasted from 1952-1960. Core or resistance was formed by members of Kikuyu tribe. Uprising did not succeed militarilty but created rit b/w white settlers and home office in london that set stage for kenyan indpsenedence in 1963. spurred by occupation of land by euro settlers, squatters,. oaht ritualoften believed breaking would result in death by supernatural forces.
Mau Mau
On 24 April 1954, the Army launched this in Nairobi and the city was put under military control. Security forces screened 30,000 Africans and arrested 17,000 on suspicion of complicity, including many people that were later revealed to be innocent. The city remained under military control for the rest of the year. About 15,000 Kikuyu were detained without trial and thousands more were deported to the Kikuyu reserves in the highland. However, the heaviest weight fell on the unions. While the sweep was very inefficient, the sheer number was overwhelming. Entire rebel Passive Wing leadership structures, including the Council for Freedom, were swept away to detention camps and the most important source of supplies and recruits for the resistance evaporated.
Operation Anvil
conservative chief of the 1920s who became a moderate nationalist in the 1930s. Most distinguished chief of the colonial era. Came into government service in 1905 as a headman in Kiambu, swiftly rising to chief in succession to his father. In 1930 he became Paramount Chief of Kikuyuyland. Political foe of Waruhiu from the mid1930s, he became disillusioned by the failure of the Kikuyu people to have lands returned to them that had been taken by European settlers. He had claims of his own and made an impassioned speech calling for the restoration of his property before a colonial land commission in 1933 to no avail. Gradually shifted from conservative Christian loyalism that had allied his family with the Waruhius to a position that was critical of the slowness of African progress under British rule. Became active on behalf of the Kikuyu Central Association. Challenged mission monopoly of primary schooling for African children. He was instrumental in the formation of the KAU in 1945 after the banning of the KCA in 1940. He was removed from his position and dabbled in a more militant brand of politics.
Koinange wa Mbiyu
East Africa Association leader and prime organizer and was a product of the Methodist mission school. Charismatic. Skilled orator, knew how to win a Kikuyu crowd with well-chosen phrase. Prominent Kikuyu family but politics was cast in opposition to traditional patterns of trial authority. Rejected colonial rule and urged campaign against the kipande and was arrested and deported from Nairobi to coastal town of Kismayu without proper trial. He was taken into custody in Nairobi on March 1922, his supporters protested at police station. Next day, crowd swelled to b/w 7000/8000. Police formed defensive line and shooting started. Not sure why, maybe b/c women in crowd shamed and goaded African police until one finally fired his rifle at them. 21 Africans killed, including 4 women and 28 wounded. First violent political protest in Kenya.
The Young Kikuyu Association, formed in 1921, was a protest movement in Kenya, organized by him and attacked high taxes and British dominance of Kenyans. The movement was short-lived.
Harry Thuku
resistration certificate recording work periods, wages, comments by employers, and other employment-related matters; from 1920 all male adults were required to carry this under penalty of heavy fines, controlled movements of African laborers and for locating and idying them. After the war, the colonial gov took no steps to compensate Kenyan workers. It increased repression by increasing taxes, reducing wages, and introducing this so as to consolidate the forced labor system
sub-caln mbari land holding. originally meaning uncultivated bush, the holding was based on rights of first-use, and were derived from hunting rather than from agri traditions
the central committee who organized Mau Mau from Nairobi, later extending in to the Kikuyu Reserves
1949, former gang members would play other roles in militant urban struggles, esp n the unions and in support of a group of like-minded radicals known as this. It is comprised of a small cell of militant activists who were beginning to coordinate opposition to colonial rule on several fronts. Members were active in the Rift Valley and in support of squatters at Olenguruone and in slums of Eastlands as well as on committees of KAU. Administered their own oath to ppl and were gathering guns in prep for a violent struggle that they saw as inevitable is Kikuyu were to free themselves from Europe domination. Members of Kiambaa Parliament took decision to try to deal with militants of this group. Koinange contacted two prominent leaders; Fred Kubai and John Mungai, both joined on condition that their supporters could administer the oath to any trustworthy Kikuyu and that oath should be made more militant.
First Prime Minister in 63 and 64 and President in 64-78 of independent Kenya. Considered founding father of Kenyan nation. founded pan-african federation w/kwame nkrumah. 47 became pres of KAU. Reputation w/Br gov was marred by his assumed involvement with Mau Mau. Arrested in 52 and sentenced to 7 yrs in prison and hard labor. then sent to exile on probation in lodwar. state of emergency lifted in 1960 and his release was demanded by KAU, KANU, KADu. elected KANU pres and fully released in 1961. Admitted into Legislative Council in 62. Supported reconciliation of white settlers. made KANU almost the only poli party of kenya
Jomo Kenyatta
detailed look at the british dention system in kenya, a this of overflowing prison camps where inmates routinely died of infectious disease, starvation and the harshness of forced labor - if they made it throug the interrogations.
the Pipeline
detention camp in northern Kenya. Decisive event in Kenya’s path to independence. Contained a group of hard-core Mau Mau who had persistently mounted resistance against efforts to make them work. Decision was taken to step up the level of force to be used against prisoners of this type, and officers received instructions to compel the prisoners to undertake hard labor resulting in a violent clash b/w prisoners and their wardens. When asked to work, the detainees refused, the guards had then set upon them with whips and batons and at the finish 11 detainees lay dead, clubbed to death by their African guards whilst European warders looked on. No way back after this, the culpability of the most senior officials in Kenya administration was apparent.
Hola Camp Massacre
The creation of this turned the civil disturbance into a civil war, loyalists.
Makimei was among first chiefs in Kiambu to organize one of these to defend Lari against Mau Mau incursion. By November 1952 there were 3000 of these in Central Provinces, a kind of “Dad’s Army” gathered around those loyal Christian chiefs who feared that they and their clients might be target of Mau Mau attacks. Formal militia given authority to act in assistance of police and army. Force that would confront Mau Mau head to head in the struggle. By 1953 there were 7600 of these.
little more than an undisciplined settler militia- vigilantes in uniform who only made the ordinary work of the police and security forces more difficult by over stepping the mark in their methods.
A far larger number of white settlers were police reservists. Bulk of additional manpower needed was found through a massive expansions of this. Comprised 200 full time officers and another 4800 part timers. Vast majority were white settlers. Indispensable to security forces during emergencies but personal commitment to struggle was not always an asset due to their tendency to take independent actions against suspects. Nairobi- small groups of these formed their own strike squads. Shady.
Baring took steps towards a declaration of war against Mau Mau only two days after Waruhiu’s killing in 1952 and asked that this be decalred. If allowed this would give the Gov powers to detain suspects underspeical emergency legislation to impose other laws w/o reference to London and to deploy the miliarty in aid of the civil administration. Not something that Colonial Office was comfortable with in any British colony esp in Kenya where Euro community only too ready to take law into their own hands. Baring made the case that firm and swift action would put a break on settler excess and that it need not be prolonged if Mau Mau leaders were quickly taken out of circulation. On 14 October Secretary of State of Colonies gave consent and Kenya began to prepare. Paln was simple; a list of suspects were compiled and plans laid for a mass round-up to take place on October 20 1952. Thought that decapitation of Mau Mau would stop movement in its tracks and that police could regain control of Kikuyu and Nairobi.
Emergency Power Regulations/State of emergency
Each night at dusk the home guard unit here gathered to begin their rounds. On March 26 1953, the patrol was summoned to investigate the discovery of a body in the location of Headman Wainaini. They found the remains of a loyalist nailed to a tree. As they walked back, they noticed fires breaking out in the direction of their own homes. They had purposely been lured there to leave the town undefended. The Mau Mau attack came. While they were gone, several hundred attackers had gathered in 5 separate gangs descended upon their targets. Attackers set on killing everyone and guards returned just as attack was coming to an end. killers disappeared into the night. Not random, all victims were families of local chiefs, ex-chiefs, headmen, councilors and prominent House Guard. Loyalists. Principal victim was Luka Wakahangare.
Lari Massacre