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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Weberian definitions of the State
A sect of political institutions that govern within a delimited territory
Civil Society
the organization that arise out of voluntary association within society, found between the extend family and the state
Indirect rule
A System of colonial administration favoring the use of intermediaries, and offering a degree of devolution, rather than full scale central governments intervention
Irredentism
The desire to unite under one flag a community that is currently divided
State Elite
An educated and urban class which owes its privileges to its access to state institutions
Ideology
A lifeguiding system of beliefs, values and goals affection political style and action
Nation
a collection of people bound together be common values and traditions, often sharing the same language, history and an affiliation to a geographical area
Nationalism
the desire that the nation should be housed in its own sovereign state, occurs when members of a nation desire to be united as one political unit
African Socialism
A strain of socialism built more on African ‘traditional values’ (village communalism and co-operation) tan the class struggle of classical Marxism-Leninism
Scientific Socialism
A strain of socialism based on the class analysis of Karl Marx, later developed by V.I Lenin
Populism
a political movement favoring the wishes and interest of ‘ordinary people’
Ethnic Group
a community of people who have the conviction that they have a common identity and common fate based on issues of origin, kinship ties, tradition, cultural uniqueness, a shared history and possible a shared language
‘Tribalism’
the charge that groups continue to hold divisive ‘outdated’ ethnic allegiance that counter the states goal of national unity, a derogatory accusation used by nationalist, which considers ethic identities to retrogressive and harmful to the develop to modern nation states.
Instrumental Ethnicity
where members seek to become part of an ethnic group because it is in their interest to do so
Peasantry
small agricultural producers, producing largely for their own subsistence
Proletariat
wage earners within capitalist societies who rely on selling their labor
Informal Sector Entrepreneurs
individual making a living from petty trading, often involving illegal actives
Bourgeoisie
the ruling class in the capitalist era of history, whose power is based on their ownership of the means of production
Petty Bourgeoisie
Minor owners of productive property whose exploitation of labor is limited
National Bourgeoisie
the indigenous ruling class
Commercial bourgeoisieies
the classical bourgeoisie as defined by Marx in his studies of western capitalist societ
Bureaucratic bourgeoisie
those who ‘control’ rather than ‘own’ their means of production, exploiting their command over the institution of the state to accumulate capital
Comprador bourgeoisie
any section of the national bourgeoisie which acts as an agent for international bourgeoisie
International Bourgeoisie
international capitalist based in the ‘north’ who exploits the ‘peripheral’ economies of Africa and other regions of the ‘south’
Coercion
the use or threat of violence to achiever a political or social purpose
Legitimacy
a psychological relationship between the governed and their governors, which engenders a belief that the state’s leaders and institution have a right to exercise political authority over a society
Personal rule
A system of government where own individual commanding the heights of state institutions and patron-client networks enjoys a virtual monopoly on all formal political activity within a territory
Clientelism
a largely instrumental political relationship between an individual of higher socio-economic status (the patron) who uses his own influence and resources to provide protection or benefits, or both for a person of lower status (the client) who for their part reciprocated by offering general support and assistance to the patron
Patron-client Relationship
the series of vertical links that bind patron and client where the client of one patron often commands their own patronage network lower down the chain
Military Coup d’ etat
a sudden illegal displacement of government in which members of the security forces play a prominent role
Veto coup
where the military intervenes to arrest political transition, protection its corporate interest
Breakthrough Coup
where the military acts in the vanguard of a revolution, replacing tradition political institution with more radical structures of government
Profession Ethic of Non-Intervention
the acceptance that the military should remain under political control, and not use its capacity to inflict violence in an effort to influence the political process
Sovereignty
the claim of supreme political authority within a territory
Proxy Wars
a local conflict which has been ‘internationalized’ effectively making the protagonist surrogates of competing ‘superpowers’
International Financial institutions
non governmental bodies that help regulate the international economy, such as the international monetary fund and the World Bank
Neo-colonialism
economic control and exploitation that western powers still retain over the ex-colonies after independence
Structural adjustment program (SAPs)
neo-liberal economic reform strategies promoted by international financial institutions during the 1980s and 1990s
Terms of Trade
the ration of a state’s income form exports, measured against the cost of its imports
Unequal exchange
a problem where the international economy purchases (third world) primary produce relatively cheaply, compared with the expensive costs of (western) manufactured products in the same market
Crisis of Accumulation
the failure to create wealth through the productive investment of surplus capital
Crisis of Governance
the failure of state to provide political structure able to represent civil society
Kleptocratic/Vampire/Predatory State
Literally ‘ruled by thieves’ a state that exploits, rather than serves, civil society