Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Humans that are bipedal, etc.
The family of great apes.
Oldest hominids before 3.7mya are where?
In Chad, Ethopia, Kenya.

We have leg bones from fossil in Kenya. May hae been bipedal!
Oldest humans in Eurasia?
Georgia (1.8mya)

Spain (800kya)

Italy (700kya)

China (1.6 - 1.8mya)

Indonedia (1.6 mya)
Oldest anatomically modern humans?
In Ethiopia, 200kya
Oldest symbols
South Africa, 70kya
Outline of Human Evolution: 6 - 5mya
Expansion and diversification of terrestrial African apes.

Possible bipedalism or beginnings of bipedalism.
Outline of Human Evolution: 5 - 2.5 mya
Bipedal hominins expand through open zones of Africa.

Fruit is few in the Savanna. You have to eat tougher foods. Roots of lotus and papyrus, seaweed, etc. Similar diet of modern baboons. Result is MEGADONTY, or bigger teeth.
2.5 - 1.9mya
First tool-makers in Africa. Long before anything else. Making complex tools, traveling very far for materials.
1.9mya - 800KYA
Expansion to Europe, other parts of Africa, Asia.

Beginning of obligate bipedalism. Before then, could do well in the trees, but now we're committed.
800 - 200kya
Expansion to Europe, competent hunting, modern-size brains, big teeth and bodies.

Europe very hard to live in. Very dark. NOt enough sunlight to grow through entire October and March.

TO live, you need to get animal protein or something.

Now, the gulf keeps the climate temperate.
200kya - 10kya
Anatomically modern humans, complex technology, symbolic culture, worldwide expansion, modern-size brains AND teeth/bodies.
Possible date for human/chimp split?
In the Miocene, about 9mya
Orrion tugenensis
Was a biped! Lots of early hominids are unclear. Do they evolve into us, or die out? We don't understand relationships!

A little bit before 6mya to like 5.75myaish
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Dated to about 7mya by biostratigraphic correlation.

Found near what was once a gallery forest adjacent to freshwater lake. (found evidence of hippos, monkeys, etc.

They know it's human because the foramen magnum is on the bottom of the skull instead of at the posterior.
General location of most early human sites around 6 - 2mya
East Africa and down coast to the South (were there preservation difficulties in other areas, or just no humans?)
Five main "events" in human evolutionary history
-Bipedalism (6 - 4mya)

-Tools and tool-dependence (from 2.6mya)

-Niche expansion to Eurasia, meat-eating, varied temperate environments (from 1.8mya)

-Hunting and meat-dependence (from ca. 500kya)

-"Living in our heads" - symbolic culture (from 800kya+?)

All gradually developed in Africa!
Some physical attributes about bipedalism
Lucy's arms were v. long compared to her legs. Has long, curly toes. Harder to run with long curly toes!

We have curvy spine, thigh bones slanted inward (most quadrupeds, bone goes straight from hip bone, because you never need to balance on one leg!)
Why bipedalism?
Out in open country, easier to carry things back with hands free.

Easier to hold weapons and tools.

Could feed from bushes.

Increases flexibility in unpredictable environments

**Exceptional endurance for heat!
-no hair, sweat glands,coolants in the brain.
-humans really good at running, could run down another animal.
Hominins with: large brains, small teeth, obligate bipedalism
H. sapiens
H. neanderthalensis
H. heidelburgensis
H. antecessor
H. erectus
H. ergaster
Hominins with: small brain, very large teeth, facultative bipedalism
P. robustus
P. aethlopicus
P. boisei

aka, the robust australopithecines.
Hominins with: small brain, large teeth (but not very large!), facultative bipedalism
Au. habilis
Au. anamensis
Au. afarensis
Au. africanus
Hominins with: small brain, small teeth, quadrupedalism
The Australopithecines
Found in eastern, southern, and north-central Africa.

Robust (Paranthropus) and Gracile. Based on cranial and dental robusticity.

Lots of secual dimorphism! Suggests that they didn't have monogomous mating.

Sound scapula of a child that indicates hanging well from trees.

Females smaller than a chimpanzee!
Australopithecus afarensis

A gracile australopithecine, about 3 - 4mya
A 3.3mya juvenile A. afarensis from the Dikika region of Ethiopia.

(found scapula, indicates hanging well from trees?)
Robust Australopithecines
also known as Paranthropus

Large teeth, jaws, extensive muscle attachments for chewing (sagittal keel), ate perhaps hard, gritty foods that pitted their teeth.

But STILL had smaller teeth. Probably didn't show them for intimidation!

Lots of sexual dimorphism. Suggests different social organization (aka, not monogomous) than modern humans
Laetoli footprints

Found in Laetoli, Tanzania

3.7mya, dated with K-Ar dating.
Diet of australopithecines
Dental microwear:

Gracile: leaves, tough foods
Robust: hard, gritty material

Isotope data:

Higher up the food chain, more Nitrogen15 in your bones. Indicate some meat-eating.
Uses of the earliest tools
2.6 - 1.7mya

-butchery (cut marks on bones)
-digging for roots, tubers (microwear)
-woodworking (residues)

Nothing that could have been used for [b]illing?
How can we use languages to understand history?
-Common words, cognates, and loan words in vocabulary. Shows how close cultures are to each other.
-Maybe based on alphabets?-Grammar, sentence structure (same set of pronons, etc.)
How can we tell the borrowed word from its root?
1) Core Vocab (names, numbers, colors, animals, body parts, etc. About 100 words that change less rapidly than acquired (?). New technology, words come with it. Algebra, internet, etc.

2) Same roots. Might have different endings to give grammatical meaning.

ex. Indo-European, romance, Germanic, Slavic, Indian. Word for food, "pied" in French, the p's turn to s's. Fish, pez, etc.
Used this to figure out the Bantu expansion. Fuzzy to tell when Huns conquered other Chinese colors.

Tells when one language group split into two. Core vocabulary changes 14% every 1000 years.
Why so many languages?
Like genes, languages diverge over time when populations of speakers are isolated (English and American)

Eventually become not mutually intelligable
How do we know if two languages are related?
-Phonemes (like clicks, glottal stops, tones, and other sounds)

-Regular sound transformations

-Cognates or very similar words in a "core" vocablary

Four indigenous language families pre-1500 AD
-Niger-Congo/Congo-Kordofanian (1436 languages, including TWI!)

-Afroasiatic (371), including Semitic languages. Only one to include languages spoken outside Africa.

-Nilo-Saharan (196 languages, slowly being extinguished, mostly along the Sahel)

-Khoisan languages (35)

-Indo-European languages were imported here, except for Afrikaans, which was formed in Africa after colonialism.

-Malagasy, an Austronesian language spoken in Madagascar

All originate close to the Horn!
General African language features
-Phonological diversity - tones, clicks, glottal stops

-Noun classes (reflect gender, animate/inanimate, human/nonhuman, shape, etc.)

-Noun cases (nomnative, accusative, or other)

-Verbs (may have prefixes and suffixes which indicate not only tense but also action [toward or away from speaker], opposites, etc.)
Afro-Asiatic Languages
-Second oldest family, origin in Ethopia/Sudan

-Includes Semitic languages (Arabic and Hebrew...only African language family spoken outside of Africa)

-Includes Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic, Chadic.

-Cushitic and Chadic are v. diverse and found in W, C, and E Africa.
ex. Hausa (W. Africa, Afar (Ethopia)), Somali, Galla (Kenya), and Iraqw (Tanzania)

-Noun classes: gender

-Possessive is "n" or "na"

-Similar pronouns ('i' or 'u' for 'I')
Nilo-Saharan languages
-Originated in Sudan

-Related to maroitic

-Mainly in C. and E Sahara/Sahel to N. Kenya, Uganda, and NE Congo. Some pockets in W. Africa. Recent extension to S. Kenya and Tanzania (Maasai)

-Includes Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Karamojong, Dodoth, Turkana, Teso, Lese, Maasai, etc.

-More cattle-related words than Afroasiatic

-Gender and inanimate/animate noun classes

-Pronoun "a" for "I"

-Interrogatives - "nai" for "who", "nyo" or "iano/nainu" for "what"

-Use of "k" to form plural
Niger-Congo languages
-Biggest group is Bantu languages of W. E. and S. Africa

-Some small "Kordofanian" groups in Sudan

-Nuba hills and non-Bantu groups in W. Africa (Wolof, Fulani, Mande, Voltaic, Yoruba, Akan), and C. Africa (Azanda). Elaboration of forest vocabulary.

-Bantu languages - eg. Xhosa, Zulu, Herero, Swahili, Kikuyu, Nande, Shona, Ndebele, Kongo

-Elaborate noun classes - prefixes for mu/ba for person/people, ki/se for languages, also distinguish animate/inaminate, human/non-human, shapes, etc.

-Huge expansion from W. Africa ca. 1000bc - 0ad

*Can get political! Sawra, baSawra or leSawra, "kiSwahili" or "isiSwahili" to denote the languae
Khoisan Languages
-Today only in western South Africa and N. Central Tanzania (Hadza, Sandawe). Share clicks but little vocabulary.

-Elaborate tones and glottal stops

-Most ancient languages - genetics suggest more than 40k - 60kya

-Distinguish singular, plural, and dual

-Many lack noun classes and significant verb inflections

-Original Africans - Most Khoisan languages were eclopsed as incoming Bantu took over, intermarried

-Loan words into current E. Africa Niger-Congo and Bantu languages suggest at least 6 extinct sub-families of Knoisan

-Similarity in sounds makes it easy to learn new vocabulary and have no accent.

Term "san people" means "savage that eats raw meat"
Khoisan Clicks!!!!
/ is the dental click. Example, n/o

≠ for alveolar click

! for palatal click

// for lateral click

" for glottal stop
The concept of "race"
If you haven't gotten this from EVERY other antho class you've ever taken, race is a cultural construct in which certain biologically based features are used to classify people.

Each culture choses different criteria (Sudanese "arabs" distinguish themselves from Christian "blacks", but both would hav been considered black in the US. Rwanda, hutus and Tutsis on basis of body and nose shape.
Skin Colour
-Pigment called melanin produced by melanocytes in the skin

-Everyone has more-o-r-less same number of melanocytes, just more or less active

-Unrelated to melanin activity in the brain

-Protects against UVA and UBC exposure, which damage immune system

-In low sunlight conditions, melanin prevents UV rays from making adequate vitamin D from precursors in the skin

-Advantageous in equatorial regions, disadvantageous in low sunlight conditions

-High-levels re-established in native South Americans
How can genes reflect history?
-A small % of genome actually makes proteins, is exposed to selective forces

-Most genes are inactive, just carried along from one generation to another

-Substitutions, inversion, duplications, deletions in those "neutral" regions occur randomly at a regular ate and so not affect life of bearer or descendants

-Can reconstruct order of these "mistakes" and use to reconstruct ancestor-descendant relationships of gene sequences. Give each sequence or "haplotype" a name letter.

-% of particular haplotypes in a region reflects ancestry and migration history.
Characterization of haplogroups
-Pie charts used for statistical characterization of population frequencies

-Individual's haplogroup can only suggest likelihood of origin area, not definitive

-Pattern shows that Europe was populated from C. Asia repeatedly (Mongols?)

-mtDNA only reflects the female lineage

-M = original "out of Africa" group, found in C. and South Asia, but not in Europe

-L1, L2, and L3 all original African groups
African genetics
-More variable continent - reflects greater antiquity of African gene pool

-All people outside of Africa descended from just one group of Africans

-Last common ancestor of all Africans, ca. 150kya

-last common ancestor of mtDNA group L3 and all non-Africans, ca. 60kya
Four Grades in OUR African Ancestors
1) Gracile Australopithecines (anamensis, afarensis, africanus, from 4.2mya), AND Paranthropus (from 2.6)......bipedal, megadont

2) Early Homo (habilis, ergaster, erectus, 2.3mya. Coexists with Paranthropus for first millon years!)......bigger brain, committed biped (ergast/erect), first expansion from Africa

3) Mid-Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis, rhodesiensis, helmei, etc. NO neandertal, 600kya). Modern-sized brain, still big teeth and face, more inventive

4) Homo sapien (from 200kya), modernsized brain, small teeth and face tucked under braincase, large scale social groups, complex weapons, and symbolic culture
Context of the origin of tool use
-Obtaining foods otherwise difficult to access (nuts, tubers, dead carcasses)

-Our social nature provides context for new behaviors to be learned, shared, and passed on.

-Group size needs to be big enough, otherwise everyone dies and the new behavior disappears. Something must be repeated in large numbers to be preserved in archaeological record
Progression of hominin tool use
~5 - 8mya: tool assisted behavior

~2.5mya: tool dependent behavior
Tool-making by Australopithecus?
Would be by Australopithecus garrhi, about 2.5mya

Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia

Percussion and cut-marks on bones
How to tell diet at death from microwear on teeth
Linear scratches on teeth: leaf/fruit eater. Howler money/A. africanus

Pitted surface of teeth from diet on harder materials (Capuchin, P. robustus)
Stone tools ~2.6mya
-earliest sites hard to detect b/c of low density

-earliest tool for ms difficult to distinguish from geofacts

-at 2.6mya, repeated use of locales!

-earliest tools look simple, but given chimp social diversity likely present among early hominins for tool manufacture/use
How to recognize old sites
-Human artifacts or modifications (cut-marked bone, postholes)

-association with extinct fauna and/or dates

-evidence of primary deposition and burial context
The Oldowan Industry (dates and sites)
2.6mya - 1.5mya

-Ain Hanech (north Africa)
-Gona, Hadar, Middle Awash
-Koobi Fora, West Turkana
-Olduvai, Peninj
-Swartkrans, Sterkontein
Things to consider when knapping
-Platform angle
-Platform depth
-Core morphology
-Required force
Oldowan Tools in: Olduvai
-Oldowan (1.87 - 1.65) (choppers, discoids, polyhedrons)

-Developed Oldowan A (1.65 - 1.53 (choppers, spheroids, proto-bifaces, awls)

-Developed Oldowan B (1.53 - 1.2) (spheroids, sub-spheroids, awl , outils ecailles, "crude" bifaces)

-Developed Oldowan C (1.2 - 0.6) (light, dusty scrapers, outils ecailles, laterally trimmed flakes)
Oldowan Tools in: Omo
Shungura Facies (2.3mya)

Small quartz pebbles
Oldowan Tools in: Koobi Fora
KBS Industry (no retouched pieces of spheroids, 1.9mya) made with BASALT

Karari scrapers (1.6mya)
Oldowan Tools in: West Turkana (Lokalalei)

Pre-Oldowan (LA1) (flawed material?)
Highly skilled (LA2C)
Oldowan Tools in: Gona

High-quality materials and sophisticated artifacts

Picked out the rocks that would make the sharpest flakes!

Indicates stasis?

Made from volcanics
Living Floors
Theory of the 1970s

Thought of like little camps! Butder or tool-making sites.

Discrete horizons of artifacts and bones

campsites, butchery sites, quarry sites, toolmaking sites
Why sites? (hypothetical patterns of oldowan behavior)
1) Home base/central place foraging
2) Favored Places
3) Resource Transport
Home Base/Central Place Foraging (Hypothetical pattern of Oldowan behavior)
-group slips to forage and reforms at central place
-implies food sharing, sexual division of labor
Favored Places (hypothetical pattern of Oldowan behavior)
-bones and artifacts tend to accumulate at places of repeat activity (water, shade, nearby food, climbable trees)

-high competition: scavenging stations, resource defense

-lower competition: routed foraging, refusing.

Most likely to be this one because mosquitos, snakes, and leopards leopards are usually sleeping by the lake
Resource transport (hypothetical patterns of oldowan behavior)
-key innovation is transport of resources around landscape
-accumulated stones may have acted as a "magnet"
Function of Oldowan tools?
1. Cutmarks and percussion pits, asosciation of bones and tools

2. Use wear (nine flakes from Koobi Fora)...wood, meat, grass

3. Experiments (cutting meat and hide, woodworking, breaking bones and nuts)
Did the Oldowan people hunt and/or scavenge?
1. Whatever the answer, plant foods still important

2. Argument is dominated by evidence from FLK Sinj

3. Primary, secondary, or multistage scavenging access?
Evidence for hunting/scavenging among Oldowan users
1. Cutmarks and toothmarks
-placement (midshaft vs. epiphysis, bones with lots of meat?)

2. Skeletal part represntation
-transport by hominids and/or carnivores
-destruction by hominids and/or carnivores
-postdepositional destruction
-shaft frags?

3. Equifinality?

4. Nature of scavenging opporunities
How much intelligence does the Oldowan indicate?
1. "stone tools made to standard pattern represent a different kind of cognitive organization than that known for any other animal"

2. ape tool use (nut-cracking, termite dipping, hammer transport, experiments

3. Spatial cognition (piaget, "concept" of boundar, symmetry, etc.

4. Knapping skillz

5. Raw material selectivity

6. "Cultural" variability and adaption
What happened with climate 2.6 million years ago that made tool use start?
Water sources lessening, activities must be concentrated.

Temperature was REALLY wiggly and unsteady
What happened with hominin evolution 2.6 million years ago that made tool use possible?
Brains are metabolically expensive.

Isn't much room in primate body to compensate. Internal organs use most energy. Change in diet (eat MEAT can result in smaller gut, larger brain? (expensive tissue hypothesis)
What is the Acheulean age?
1. Certain percentage of large bifacial tools: handaxes, cleavers, picks ("cultural historic" approach)

2. One is enough (Evolutionary stage approach)

3. Large flakes, bifacial "concept", platform preparation (technological approach)
Early Acheulean sites in Africa

1) Konso-Gardula, Ethopia (1.4mya, large crude bifaces)

2. EF-HR, Bed II Olduvai (1.4-1.6?mya, no radiometric dates)

3. Peninj (1.4-1.7mya, controvercial K/Ar, normal paleomag, more work being done)
Who invented the Handaxe?
Homo ergaster/erectus! 1.8mya

-bigger brain
-bigger body
-more mobile
-better hunter
Function of the handaxe?
-"Swiss Army knife"
-Wood and other plants
Mode 2 of the Acheulean vs. Mode 1
-larger flakes? but many European ones made on cobbles

-symmetry (piaget stage), but are they deliberate designs or cores?

-manmade fire! (constantly burns at the same place, add fuel)
When fire? Where fire? Why fire important?
Cooking, diet of cooked starches unique

Warmth, move into winter climate

Caves, first evidence of actual occupation in caves, scare away other residents

Predator protection, could be first ground-dwelling sites?

Fighting - drive or ambush hunting

Transformation of materials, basis of all later technologies

Social function, light at night, create focus for development of language
How do we know that humans controlled fire?
-more intense (stronger magnetic signal, higher temperature)

-longer lasting (contiuous fuel supply....cave guano fires?)

-spatially localized and discontinuous (stump fires?)
Earliest records of fire?
-Koobi Fora, 1.65mya - 1.4mya, and Chesowanja

-Burned bones from Swartkrans (cave) S. Africa, ca. 1.5-1mya
Gersher Benot Ya'aqov

-burned flints
-burned grass seeds
-hearths and debitage
Change in humans from australopithecus to early homo
-larger bodies
-longer legs
-smaller teeth
When does general drying trend become pronounced?
About 2.5mya
Flake technologies of the Acheulean
-shift to flake begins in 500kya in Africa, with shift in fauna from specialized grazers to more generalized species

-levallois technology by ca. 350-400kya or older, 350kry in Near East, 300kyr in Europe
Mental capabilities of modern humans ("living in our heads")
-abstract thinking
-planning ahead
-creativity (problem-solving through innovation)
-'imagined communities'
-symbolic thinking and communication
-theory of mind
Detecting a capacity for "living in our heads" in the archaeological record: Abstract thinking, planning ahead, problem-solving
-increased rate of technological change

-economic intensification (getting more use out of a single piece of land)


-long-distance trade
Detecting a capacity for "living in our heads" in the archaeological record: imagined communities, social complexity
-regional styles (handaxes look same from Africa to England to India!)

-long-distance contacts (you recognize people in your own social group. look for stones moving long distances!)

-burials with grave goods

-body ornaments
Detecting a capacity for "living in our heads" in the archaeological record: symbolic communication



-body ornament

-regional differentiation
Detecting a capacity for "living in our heads" in the archaeological record: theory of mind, empathy
-survival of pathological individuals

-look for people with horrific injuries that live

-body decoration with pigments


-body ornamnent
Signs that capacity to "live in our head" is OLDER than H. sapiens
-problem solving: stone tools, fire, wooden spears, new environments

-abstract thinking: levallois technology

-planning ahead: ambush hunting at Lehringern, La Cote de St. Brelade

-social complexity: long distance procurement

-symbolic communication: ocher at 350kyr, with H. heidelburgensis or rudolfensis, ocher used at 290kyr, ground and shaped for some purpose...body coloration?

-theory of mind: survival of pathological individuals at Nariokotome, Dmanisi
Gademotta, Ethiopia
-spearpoint! indications of being attached to something

-large variety of tools

285kya (80k before H. sapiens!)
Levallois technique
aka, Mode 3 Prepared Core Technique


3-dimensional, or third-order conceptualization
Long Post-Acheulian sequences (date range and locations)

-Middle Awash
Olorgesailie, Kenya
New research, 2001 - 2008

white stuff is old lake bed

2 localities are MSA. Lots of obsidian, not found in lake basin

-lake was there when Acheulian was there
Olorgesailie Locality B
Ostrich Eggshell Site

OLDER than 340kya:

-small, triangular flakes
-facetted striking platforms
-levallois cores
-5% exotics
-ocher/manganese lumps
faconnage technique
Reducing a flake bifacially
Stillbay points
Found in Blombos cave, 76kya

very, very fine points.
debitage technique
try to shape a flake on the core before you take it off
Potential causes of shift from Acheulian to MSA
-biological change to modern-size brains (by ca. 600kya in E Africa)

-adaption to environmental change reflected in faunal replacement after 500kya

-in situ cultural evolution

-new technologies, larger social networks, symbolic behavior?
Aduma, Middle Awash, Ethiopia
New developments after 130kya

small points (arrowheads? poison?) less than 90kya

-made with at least 4 different sources of obsidian

big points, more then 100kya, thrusting spears?
Why suddenly make smaller points?
force = mass x acceleration

If you have smaller mass, you need more acceleration to kill things

spearthrower - lengthens arm by almost 2 feet, hook on the end

3-part tool: shaft, point, and linkshaft (could be made of hollow wood, gum, ocher, etc.) Make linkshaft poison. Change one part of the tool, change the function.

Complexity of tool requires language?
Climate and potential for movement
Tropics and north africa/sahara have different periods of wet/dry. Possibly results in much need to travel
MSA point styles
VERY different in the different regions!

Why are projectiles important?
-more success, less duress

-survivorship increases - you don't have to be so close to your target!

-competitive advantage - only young men hunt (older ones can't see), travel very far, get women, etc.
What defines the LSA?

Hafted, portable, replaceable, reliable, multifuntional, (poisoned?) tools as risk minimization strategy for unpredictable environments
Advantages of using stone point over bone point:
-greater piercing qualities
-sharper, wider sides, inflict more damage, bleeding
-brittle, shatters or remains in wound
-greater mass
-sinks in water (Bad for fishies)
Advantages of using bone point over stone point:
-tip can be larger, blunter, knock down small game

-sides do not damage skin as much as stone

-less brittle


-floats in water
Advantages of making stone point over bone point:
-elaborate raw material selection and transport

-materials isotropic

-rapid fabrication

-brittle, frequent replacement

-greater penetration
Advantages of making bone point over stone point
-materials easy to obtain

-bone anisotropic, longitudinal fracture

-slower fabrication

-more durable

-less penetration
Bone points in the MSA
-Katanda 2, 9, and 16 (>60-80kya)

-White Paintings Shelter (MSA/LSA transition ( ? >42kya)
Katanda is in...
the Congo!
Katanda 2
Found big, 75lb catfish! Feeds 25 people for three days!

(would have needed a harpoon!)

60-80kya for overlying sands in Katanda
Katanda 9
-barbed points, string wear in base!

-used as harpoons

-sites dominated by fish bones, mostly fish heads
New technologies, networks, and symbolic information after 90kya in context of environmental deterioration after 60kya explain...
-failed expansion into Eurasia before 90kya

-popular expansion within Africa 90-60kya

-major expansions out of Africa into Asia after 60kya
Blombos Cave
in South Africa

-lots of MSA fish bones and shells


lower "stillbay" bone tools

-shells that have been perforated. string and ocher wear

-first MSA beads discovered in 2001
Differences between Katanda and Blombos points
Katanda: barbed, elaborate bases, rough

Blombos: unbarbed cylindrical, no traces of basal elaboration, polished
Similarities between Katanda and Blombos points
-both made by scraping in contrast to grinding of LSA in same region

-both have continuities in form with LSA in respective regions

-both are associated with fish bones

-both associated with v. informal lithic industries
Why isn't Blombos more like Katanda?
-functional difference? (lake fishing)

-low population density (no cultural transmission)

-different faunal provinces
White Paintings Shelter
-barbed bone points up to 3m, >42kya
Implications of language after 90kya?
symbolic behavior and social intensification after 90kya!

-blombos cave, geometric designs, shell beads at diepkloof shelter
Age the ELSA?
MSA is older than 55kya

ELSA is at least 40-57kya

Kalahari LSA begins before ca. 37kya
Date of the later pleistocene
ca. 35-14kya
Later stone age environments
Ice aaaaaaaage!

North/South Africa: more arid

Sea level down - coastlines recede. everything's friggin ice!

Sahara - hyperarid after 40kya

tropical forest more open, patchy

tropcial lakes, low levels at 18kya

interregional variability promotes MIGRATION, ISOLATION, LOCAL EXTINCTION.

-population increases at local levels/climate deterioration: new technologies and resource strategies
Pretoria Rainfall
Really low around 20kya, high around 32-35kya (when lake malawi is low).

Note how lake depth corresponds to rainfall. Ups and downs are at same time.

in later stone age
Adaptations to crazy weather of later stone age
-more flexible toolkit- microliths widespread

-more reliable toolkit (harpoons, poison, nets, etc.)

-ability to access wide variety of resources (esp., birds, snails, shellfish, tubers and grasses that require elaborate processing, etc.)

-burning grasslands to bring up new grass, attract game (control of fire)


-wider exchange networks -- beads, obsidian, rock art sites
Diversity of arrow poison
Over 200 types of poison that local people know!

-poison strong enough to kill a giraffe in a few days

-doesn't kill you if you eat it...digestive system breaks it down
Where are the LSA sites?
In high rainfall areas! In South Africa. Not much in dry bit south of Kalahari

People coped with wet/dry changed by moving up and down
Dissapearance of grassland species
Large versions of extant fauna go extinct at Holocene boundary (about 10kya): giant buffalo, hartebeest, zebra. Possible human impact, but mostly loss of grassland environment
ǂGi, Botswana
A period of wet around 24-26kya, when earliest tools come

10kya bone linkshaft, last until either Bantu or Western iron
Iberomaurusian people/time period
20-10kya coastal N. African phenomenon, particularly in 'lush' areas of coast

-Sites uncomfortably overlie Aterian sites: region abandoned for 20-40kya

-technological and biological discontinuities:

->dominated by backed bladelets
->w/o technological precedence in the region
-> genetics: U6 lineage introduced to N. Africa ~30kya from west Asia through sinai?

-very robust modern people
Iberomaurusian cultural behaviors
signal of cultural identity: knock out upper 2 incisors at puberty (dental evulsian)

burials in cemetaries in flexed psition (in crooked but not fetal position)

sites in fall and winter, most likely butchery sites. camps in spring and summer different

Montane hunters at Tamar Hat (Algeria), ~20kya, hunted barbary sheep
Reverse Utility Curve
At Tamar hat, clear evidence of human butchery and bone fragmentation

Implication: high utility elements transported everywhere

site function: specialized hunting/butchery camp
Major Rock Art Regions of the Later stone Age
Southern Africa and Zimbabwe

East Africa, esp. Tanzania

Sahara, esp. southern Algeria
Major themes of rock art in the later stone age
-trance and transformation
-"out of body" experiences
Date for Apollo 11 Cave, Namibia
ca. 27kya, human who's turning into an animal, a theriomorph
a human who's turning into an animal
Rock art conservation problems
-paintings are in open air rock shelter, exposed to erosion

-spraying with preservative causes moisture to build up behind on rock face, flake off entire slab

-medicinal and psiritual use of paintings and painted sites today

-tourists spray water on paintings to take better pictures

-need local guardians, paid adequately to avoid bribery potential
LSA use of rainforest
God evidence for quarts microlithic LSA use of rainforest and savanna habits from fauna/phytoliths

Quartz microlithic technology occurs in forest and savanna settings: simple technology not a barrier to difficult habitats. Increasingly complex behavioral solutions?
Clarias sp. (catfish)
-grows to over a meter long

-easy to catch when spawning in shallow flood plains

-rich in fats and fatty acids essential for brain nutrition

-in good condition in dry season when other resources are depleted
Human landscape management of the LSA
-tropics: forest edge maintained by burning. Does not grow back to last interglacial limits

-increase of canarium oil-seed plants in deep forest environment in Congo (needs open canopy sinlight

-collection and storage of wild grains (barly, sorghum) by 10kya

-herding wild cattle, sheep by 8kya
Ishango, DR Congo
Lots of harpoons!

2 notches at bottom instead of ridgemarks

It takes more technology to fish than hunt
Archaeological evidence for Population expansion from central Africa to Nile corridor and sahara
-based on hunting, gathering, and fishing

-earliest barbed point bones in c. Africa 90kya

-barbed poitns in east Africa by 10-9BP

In Sudanese and Egyptian NIle with ceramics by 9.3BP

Southwestern Sahel and Sahara by 7BP
Saharan Wet Phases: 14-12.7BP
Foragers, "wild Nile" (difficult to use the crazy Nile), first expansion to Sahara
Saharan Wet Phases: 12.7 - 11.5BP
Younger Dryas: cold and dry period.
Saharan Wet Phases: 1.5 - 7.5BP
Maximum wet phase!
Saharan Wet Phases: 7.5-5.5BP
Alternating periods of drought and good rainfall
Saharan Wet Phases: 5.5 - 4.5BP
Increasing dessication (desertization)
Saharan Cultural Phases: 11,500BP
aqualithic expansion (boned harpoons)

Saharan Cultural Phases: 9500-8500BP
cattle widespread, caprines (goats) on coast
Saharan Cultural Phases: 7000-6100 BP
3 species pastoralism in N. Africa
Saharan Cultural Phases: 5900-4500BP
s. expansion, predynastic Egypt
Saharan Cultural Phases: 4500-4000BP
cattle and caprines in W and E Arfica to L. Turkana
ca. 2500BP
first caprines in Southern Africa
Other Evidence for Connections between Central and East and North Africa
Ishango (DRC) of 20000-25000 BP were Nilotes

-tall and linear

-100% septal perforation of distal humerus (foramen in upper armbones)
Wadi Kubbaniya
Egypt, 18kya, height of big dry

probably semi-sedentary...broad spectrum diet and repeated re-use
Wadi Kibanniyan artifacts and diet
Backed baldelets, some with "polishj" possibly from grass-cutting

lots of fishbones. Floodplain fishing, not deep water

grindstones for prcessing seeds + tubers (major investment in low-ranked resource)

rare carbonized seeds and tubers, dated by carbon14 to 17019kya. Earlier "domesticates" shown to be intrusive.
Tuber use at Wadi Kubbaniya
-wild nut grass tubers require roasting, grinding, leaching, and cooking for use

-intensive collection of large numbers needed

-chemical analyses of grindstones suggest use for processing
Wadi Kubbaniya burial
18kya. burial, healed parry fracture on rt. ulna, stone chip lt. humerus and 2 bladelets in abdominal cavity

murders...human competition for limited resources!
Uan Afuda, Libya
Rockshelter, 9-8kya

Dense layers of Barbary sheep bones. Good evidence for hunting

-Dense Barbary sheep dung layer in shelter. Implies ownership of sheep. Not natural habitat for sheep

-penning/maintenance of Barbary sheep (aoudad) as prelude to domestication
Barbary sheep
Use of pottery among hunter-fishers of early Holocene

-all early African pottery sites in s. sahara

-w/o precedent, probably from southern origin. no evidence for movement south of nile

-independent african origin. one of oldest dates in world is 11kya Japanese pottery
Wavy line pottery
-found at forager sites across Sahel and Turkana with mammals, fish, and eastern Sahara "cattle" bones

-from local (<25km) clay sources

-early pots extensively decoated

-early pots rare at sites and do not appear associated with routine cooking

-useful for stage (delayed return)

-social or ceremonial purpose more likely
What advantage is there in pottery?
-storage (delayed returns in times of need, accumulation/social stratification)

-boiling (soften foods (faster infant eaning), eliminate toxins from tuber plants, extract grease from bones)

-social expression of individual or group
Was there a Neolithic Revolution in Africa?
No! Elements apepared early and separately

-prior intensification does suggest broad spectrum (variation in diet)
-harpoons before ceramics (Ishango)
-ceramics used by mobile foragers, not sedentary farmers
-when domestication occurs in N. Africa, animals precede plants
-reliance on domestic animals promotes MOBILITY, not sedentism (pastoralism!)
-Malaria spreads early on in pastoral context
Herding of Cattle in Egypt
10th-9th millenium BP in Nabta Playa

-other large fauna found at Nabta are adapted to xeric conditions (e.g. gazelles); this implies cattle had to be watered

-African cattle share last common ancestor with European cattle ca. 27kBP

-Microsatellite diversity pattern in African cattle suggests bottleneck event ca. 8k-10kBP
Summary of economic intensification in LSA
-oil seeds in Congo

-lots of fishing

-wild sorghum storage pits at Nabta


-cattle and sheep herding
owner or controller of domestic livestock (cattle, ovicaprids, etc.)
reliance upon livestock with life organized around this (specialized)
any human activity that increases the yield of harvested/exploited plants
human selection resulting in genetic, morphological/physiological changes
Why domesticate?
increase predictability of yield, productive potential of land, cope with climate deterioration or crowding, "broad spectrum revolution", aka variation in diet
What is domestication? (not just definition, more specific)
-keep animals/plants for a purpose

-ensure survival (animal/plant loses natural defenses)

-control reproduction (plant may lose its ability to reproduce itself)

-behavioral change (new habitats, expanded ranges, different ripening seasons, more docile animals, etc.)

-morphological changes
Why did certain animals get domesticated over others?
-we only domesticate herbivores

-large size means a substantial return for investment

-rapid growth (good size for slaughter or good age for sex)

-ease of breeding in captivity

-lack of nasty disposition/tendancy to flee or panic

-lack of territoriality, readily moved to where food/water is available

-well-developed dominance heirarchy
-independent domatication of taurine cattle on n. Africa

-subsequent cross-breeding with Indian cattle or zebu cattle (more disease resistant)

-basis of most oAfrican pastoralist societies

-"storage on the hood"/the living larder

-food usually in form of milk or blood, rarely for meat
Domesticated Grains
-Barley in Egypt

-African rice (wild varieties found in Sahelian region, semi-arid adapted wild plant but human selection for water-tolerant varieties)

-Sorghum (~3kya?), vevry important for bread and porridge. Wild progenitor found in Sahel today. High-yield.

-Finger millet, bulrish millet: important in beer manufacture (nutrition + high social value), impressions in pottery ~3kya

-teff: high status crop, lavor intensive
Effects on people of an emphasis on domesticated food sources?
-general health decline with appearance of domestication (less diverse diet)

-weaker bones, shorter stature, poor dental health

-caries, anemia, Harris lines (malnutrition)

-sedentism creates serious sanitation problems

-spread of communicable diseases: malaria

-spread of diseases that jump from animals to humans :smallpox
Denial River :-)
-flows north, as opposed to other rivers of the time

-longer than US is wide

-3 major components: blue nile from ethiopia, white nile from lake victoria, and atbara from sudan/ethopia border

-sources are in Central African great lakes (16%) and summer rainfall in Ethiopia (83%)

-Result: perennial flow iwth major annual inundation in the fall, leaves behind mineral-rich silt

-dependable fertile land!
History of Denial River
-early Holocene "wild nile" scoured out by the avlley, high rainfall favored settlement of playa basins

-worldwide sea levels from melting glaciers flooded delta tp 50km inland

-subsequent trend toward aridity,

-many sites buried deep under Delta or valley silts
Nile regions from South to North
-Nubia, region of flow through sandstone from Khartoum to Aswan

-"upper egypt"

-"qena bend", luxor to cairo", sometimes "middle egypt"

-delta, from cairo to coast, "loewr egypt", direct contact with near east
Fayum Neolithic sites
-introduction of emmerwheat, domesticated 6-row barley, sheep, and goats from near east by 5000 BCE, oasis agriculture

-harpoons look more like Israeli than African...imported from middle east

-trade networks!
evidence of domestication in Egypt
-food storage (in silos or on the hood) replaces networks as "security net"

-population increase, fedby more reliable food, weaning foods, less work for women increases reproductive potential

-health effects: dental caries, decline in tooth size, robusticity, anemias and diet of deficiency diseases, spread of communicable and zoonotic diseases
stone maceheads
-feature of royalty, pecularly African
Trade networks of the Fayum
shells form mediterranean coast

turquoise from sinai

amazonite from Tibesti region in Sahara

sea shells from red sea coast
Continuity between Upper Egypt and Nubia
-large cemetaries (symbolizes rootedness in land)

-individuals buried in bundles of matting, and animals too

-animal and human figurines

-uman burials including gravegoods

-cosmetics - mining cosmetics, lots of making cosmetic containers, decorated grinding stones. green, white, red, and yellow pigments

-necklaces and bracelets of lots of materials

-stone maceheads and bowls

-double-crescent arrowheads

-fine pottery (thin, black-top. made by hand. never designed for cooking)
Why bury with elaborate grave goods?

-avoid contamination

-provide for afterlife

-createrelationship with dead

-send message to gots to look favorably on living

-ceremonial occasion for feasting renewal of social bonds

-create social landscape of power

-distributed remains in some cases, locus of power?
Treaatment of the Body in Egypt
-accompany with precious goods (from Badarian on) including cosmetics

-accompany with evidence of feasting...bread and beer

-tomb panting at hierakonpolis depicting capture, "lord of the animals"

-wrap in leather, matting (from badarian on)

-wrap in resin-soaked linen (from naqada 2b on)

-pots for heads