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20 Cards in this Set

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Mt. Kilimanjaro
In Tanzania, near the Kenya border. It was discovered in 1847 by a German explorer, but Africans had lived there long before this time. It is the tallest mountain in Africa. There are 2 snow-capped peaks that reach almost 6000 meters. The higher peak was first climbed in 1889.
Nile River
The worlds longest river at 4150 miles long. It has 2 branches: the white nile, and the blue nile that meet at Khartoum, the capital of the Sudan Republic. Important because it forms a link between the mediterranean world and the interior of africa.
Kalahari Desert
Takes up most of Botswana, and is larger in area than Italy. It is inhabited by the San people (who dominate) and other tribes. The San people have lived there for 30,000 years. Major towns include Ghanzi, Tshabong, and Orapa.
Rift Valley
Runs from the Red Sea to South Africa, and can be seen from the moon. It is as long as 1/5 the earth's surface. The widest section is the Red Sea, and Lake Victoria may be a result of it. It proves the theory of continental drift. It was formed 1000s of years ago.
Zambezi River
about 1700 miles long, flows from NW Zambia to the Mozambique Channel. Its banks are fertile and well populated, and it has great hydroelectricity generating potential.
Congo River
The worlds 5th longest river, and drains into the Congo Basin. The most extensive and useful in all of Africa bc it has about 8000 miles of navigable waterways. It forms the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo.
Atlas Mountains
a system of ranges and plateaus of NW Africa extending form SW Morocco to N Tunisia between the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. Rising to about 4000 meters. Uplifted during the late Jurassic Period. Climatic barrier between the Mediterranean Basin and the Sahara Desert. They are rich in minerals, esp. phosphates, coal, iron and oil.
Niger River
It flows from its souce in the Lama Mountains into the arid Niger basin. It is one of the world's longest rivers at 2600 miles long. The upper Niger region was an imp. part of the former empires of Mail and Songhai. Now is a major source of petrol and palm oil.
Lake Victoria
the largest lake in Africa, and the world's second largest freshwater lake. in east-central Africa. 26,830 miles2. At Owen Falls dam, the lake is used to generate hydroelectricity, and parts of the lake are an imp. fishery.
Lake Tanganyika
the second largest lake of Africa, and the world's second deepest freshwater lake. 12,700 sq. miles. In east-central africa. Has important fisheries. During WWII there were several small battles between the British and Germans on the lake.
Lake Nyasa
about 11,600 sq. miles. In east-central africa. Named by David Livingston in the 1800s. It is the third largest lake in africa, and is in the Great Rift Valley. Forms a border between Malawi and Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique.
Lake Chad
once an enormous body of water, but now only a shallow and swampy lake. Travel is v. difficult bc of many weeds, esp. during the dry season. In nort-central Africa. First explored by europeans in the 1800s. Only 550 sq. miles.
Drakensburg Mountains
in eastern s. africa, lesotho, and swaziland. About 3500 meters high, and extend 700 miles. Thabana-Ntlenyana is the highest point in the range and in south africa. Thousands of san rock paintings, some 3000 years old are found in parts of the range.
Mt. Kenya
and extinct volcano in central Kenya. 5202 meters high. It is the second-highest peak in africa. It was a focul point during the Mau Mau disturbances. The national park is located there, and attracts man mountain climbers from around the world.
Sahara Desert
The world's largest desert. 3,500,000 sq. miles. Extends more than 3000 miles from the Atlantic to the Red sea. Appx. 2 million inhabitants. Has long been a barrier between north-south travel, and the exchange of ideas between africa and the med. coastlands. If it was fertiile insted of a desert, africa might have been one of the world's most highly developed regions.
Tropical Laterite
the type of most african soil. It's usually reddish in color. It is damaged by heavy rains, which leach the soil. This causes land to not be v. fertile, and even with modern agricultural practices, crop yeilds per acre are low.
Savannah grasslands
covers nearly 1/4 of africa. During the rainy season, there's tall grass and green, magnificent plants. But during the dry seaon, the grass is all dried out, best described as "bush". Savannah grasslands are hot, dry expanses of land covered in long grasses w/ a few trees, near the equator.
Rain forest
a dense evergreen forest occupying a tropical region with an annual rainfall of at least 2.5 meters. They cover only about 10% of the entire continent. Central africa has the world's second largest rainforest (congo). Madagascar was once intensivley forested, but now most is gone.
Highlands
in east, central, and south africa. Best soils and climates are found in these regions at an elevation of 5000 feet or more. The ethiopian highlands are some of the most famous and are in east africa. Ras Dashen, ethiopia's highest peak is there (4620 m)
Lake Rudolf
now is known as Turkana lake. It is 2500 sq. miles. In NW Kenya, SW Ethiopia, E africa, in the Great Rift Valley. It is the fourth larges of the eastern african lakes. It is a terminal lake (has no outlets).