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53 Cards in this Set

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Marketing reserch
The systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of information to help managers make marketing decisions.
- should not be confused with MARKET RESEARCH(info about a specific market)
-Does a number of things: a) IDs customer needs and market segments, b)helps develop new products and marketing strategies to enhance profits , and c) allows marketers to examine effectiveness of past marketing
+ helps devise a sophisticated marketing mix (4 Ps)
Three Rs of marketing:
-RECRUITING new customers

-RETAINING current customers

-REGAINING lost customers

*Marketing research helps do this
a.product attribute models

b. customer satisfaction studies and databases
a.(recruit) match buyers with the right products and services

b. (retain) ID reasons for customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Advertising Research
The systematic gathering and analysis of information specifically to facilitate the development or evaluation of advertising strategies, ads and commercials, and media campaigns

-helps determine: how people perceive products, how people view competition, what brand/company image is most credible, and what ads offer greatest appeal
Four categories/purposes of research:
1) Advertising Strategy Research: used to help define product concept or assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles

2)Creative Concept research: Measures the target audiences' acceptance of different creative ideas @ the concept stage

3) Pretesting of ads: Used to diagnose possible communication problems before a campaign begins

4) Posttesting of ads: Enables marketers to evaluate a campaign after it runs.
1) Advertising Strategy Research
Used to help define the product concept or to assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles.
*Elements of the creative mix:
-product concept, target audience, communication media, creative message

-use Advertising strategy research to get info.
a. Product concept
As an element of the creative mix used by advertisers to develop advertising strategy: the bundle of product values the advertiser presents to the consumer.
BrandAssist Valuator
-model to determine how brands are built and how they derive their strength.

-measures brand in terms of differentiation , relevance, esteem and familiarity.

1: offer something unique and different; 2: it must be perceived by the target market as relevant to their needs and wants. 3: It needs to build stature through esteem and knowledge.
EX. Disney
b. target audience selection
research develops a rich profile of the brand's target markets and audiences
- who are primary users? What are their demographics, geographics, and psychographics, and purchase behavior?
dominance concept
reaching the markets that are most important to product sales and and targeting those where it can focus its resources and achieve advertising dominance.
c. Media Selection

Media Research
The systematic gathering and analysis of information on the reach and effectiveness of media vehicles.
-used to develop media strategies, select media vehicles, and evaluate results
d. message element selection (creative message)
messages made by studying consumers' likes and dislikes in relation to brands and products.
-determine which message element options might prove most successful.
2) creative concept research
Measures the target audiences' acceptance of different creative ideas @ the concept stage
-before production begins
-Concept testing, name testing, Slogan testing
-research helps develop which concepts to use.
-cycle of testing, changing and retesting
3) Pretesting
Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement for gaps or flaws in message content before recommending it to clients, often conducted through focus groups.
-objective is to evaluate, not diagnose
4) Posttesting (ad tracking)
Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement after it has been run.
-provides useful guidelines for future advertising
a. purpose of testing
the primary tool used to see if advertising dollars are spent wisely. it can prevent costly mistakes, and give the advertiser some measure of the campaign's value.
The 5 Ms:
Pretesting helps make decisions about these variables:
1. Merchandise
Synonymous with product concept when used in reference to the 5Ms of advertising testing.
-test package design, how advertising positions the brand, or how well the advertising communicate the product's features
*benefit testing
present 10-12 product benefits to a focus group. Test which benefits the group finds most persuasive or compelling.
2. Markets
A group of potential customers who share a common interest, need, or desire; who can use the offered good or service to some advantage; and who can afford or are willing to pay the purchase price.
-*pretest groups or individuals who represent different markets
-posttest to see if campaign reached its target market(change awareness or increase market share?)
3. Motives
Emotions, desires, physiological needs, or similar impulses that may incite consumers to action.
-outside advertiser control, but can create ads to appeal to motives
-pretesting identifies motives
-postesting- How effective was message in appealing to motives?
4. Message
In oral communication, the idea formulated and encoded by the source and sent to the receiver.
-pretesting helps ID outstanding/ outperforming ads and commercials. it helps determine from consumers' view what an ad says/ how well it says it.
**pretesting guides the improvement of commercials
-posttesting checks to see if advertising works: to what extent has the ad. message been seen, remembered, and believed?
-pretesting helps with media decisions: classes of media, media subclasses, specific media vehicles, media units of space and time, media budgets and scheduling criteria.
-posttesting can determine how effectively the media mix reached its target market
-pretesting can help determine media scheduling
a) media classes

b) media subclasses
a) Broad media categories of electronic, print, outdoor, and direct mail.

b) Smaller divisions of media classes, such as radio, TV, magazines, newspapers, and so on.
c) media vehicle

d) Media units
c) Particular media programs or publications.Ex. Elle/Time magazine

d)Specific units of advertising in each type of medium, such as half-page magazine ads, 30-second spots, and so on.
overall results
postesting helps determine whether and how to continue, what to change, and how much to spend in the future
5 Steps in the Research Process
1) situation analysis and problem definition
2) Informal (exploratory) research
3) Construction of research objectives
4) Formal Research
5)Interpretation and reporting of findings
Marketing Information System(MIS)
A set of procedures for generating an orderly flow of pertinent information for use in making market decisions
Informal (Exploratory)Research
The second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most information to share.
-learn more about the market, the competition, the business and to better define the problem.
Two Types of Research Data:

a) Primary Data

b) Secondary Data
a) Research information gained directly from the marketplace about a specific problem.

b) information that has previously been collected or published.
Frequently Used Sources of Secondary Data:
-Library Reference Materials
-Govt. Publications
- Trade association publications
-Research Organizations and their publications or syndicated information
- consumer/ business publications (BusinessWeek)
- Computer Database Services
-Internet Search Engines
Formal Research
Collecting primary data directly from the marketplace using qualitative or quantitative methods.
Two Types:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quantitative Research
a)Research that tries to determine market variables according to unquantifiable criteria such as attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyle.

b)Research that tries to determine market variables according to reliable, hard statistics about specific market conditions or situations.
Two Methods of Qualitative Research:

a)Projective Techniques

b)Intensive Techniques
a)In marketing research, asking indirect questions or otherwise involving consumers in a situation where they can express feelings about the problem or product. The purpose is to get an understanding of people's underlying or subconscious feelings, attitudes, opinions, needs, and motives.

b)Qualitative research aimed at probing the deepest feelings, attitudes, and beliefs of respondents through direct questioning. Typical methods include in-depth interviews and focus groups.
i.In-Depth Interview

ii. Focus Group
i.An intensive interview technique that uses carefully planned but loosely structured questions to probe respondents' deeper feelings.

ii. A qualitative method of research in which four or more people, typical of the target market, are invited to a group session to discuss the product, the service, or the marketing situation for an hour or more.
show-and-tell focus group
provided core values of baby boomers; bring 3 or 4 items to a focus group that represent the person's ideal environment.
Three Methods Used to collect Quantitative Research:

1) Observation Method:

a. Universal Product Code (UPC)
1)A method of research used when researchers actually monitor people's actions.

a)An identifying series of vertical bars with a 12-digit number that adorns every consumer packaged good.
2) Experimental Method

a. experiment
2)A method of scientific investigation in which a researcher alters the stimulus received by a test group or groups and compares the results with those of a control group that did not receive the altered stimulus.

a. scientific investigation in which a researcher alters the stimulus received by a test group and compares the results with that of a control group that did not receive the stimulus.
Test Market
An isolated geographic area used to introduce and test the effectiveness of a product, ad campaign, or promotional campaign, prior to a national rollout.
A basic method of quantitative research. To get people's opinions, surveys may be conducted in person, by mail, on the telephone, or via the Internet.
pretesting methods:

a.Direct Questioning

b. What is the biggest challenge in pretesting?
a.A method of pretesting designed to elicit a full range of responses to the advertising. It is especially effective for testing alternative advertisements in the early stages of development.

b. Money! Small firms have difficulty pretesting
Techniques for print ads:
focus groups, order of merit tests, paired comparisons, protfolio tests, etc.
Techniques for radio and TV:

a)Central Loaction Tests

b) Clutter Tests
a)A type of pretest in which videotapes of test commercials are shown to respondents on a one-to-one basis, usually in shopping center locations.

b)Method of pretesting in which commercials are grouped with noncompetitive control commercials and shown to prospective customers to measure their effectiveness in gaining attention, increasing brand awareness and comprehension, and causing attitude shifts.
Halo Effect
In ad pretesting, the fact that consumers are likely to rate the one or two ads that make the best first impression as the highest in all categories.
Five Methods for Posttesting:

1. aided recall

2. unaided recall

Recall Tests
1. respondants are shown ads then asked whether their previous exposure through reading, viewing or listening

2. Respondants are asked, without prompting, whether they saw or heard the advertising message.

DEF:Posttesting methods used to determine the extent to which an advertisement and its message have been noticed, read, or watched.
3. Attitude tests

4. Inquiry Test

5. Sales Test
3.A type of posttest that usually seeks to measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign in creating a favorable image for a company, its brand, or its products.

4. A form of test in which consumer responses to an ad for information or free samples are tabulated.

5. A useful measure of advertising effectiveness when advertising is the dominant element, or the only variable, in the company's marketing plan. Sales tests are more suited for gauging the effectiveness of campaigns than of individual ads or components of ads.
An important characteristic of a research test. For a test to be valid, it must reflect the true status of the market.
An important characteristic of research test results. For a test to be reliable, it must be repeatable, producing the same result each time it is administered.


c)Sample Units
a)An entire target population.

b)A portion of the population selected by market researchers to represent the appropriate targeted population.

c)The actual individuals chosen to be surveyed or studied.
*theories of probability:

a) Random Probability Samples

b) Nonprobability Samples
a)A sampling method in which every unit in the population universe is given an equal chance of being selected for the research.

b)Research samples that do not provide every unit in the population with an equal chance of being included. As a result, there is no guarantee that the sample will be representative.
* 3 Attributes of Effective Questions:

*4 Most common question types:
focus, brevity, and clarity

open-ended, dichotomous, multiple choice, and scale
Goals for international research:
flexibility: using the best approach to enter the market

standardization:used so information from different countries can be compared.