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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What do beta cells in the pancreas produce?
Beta cells produce Insulin
What do alpha cells in the pancreas produce?
Alpha cells produce Glucagon
Stimulates glycogen breakdown in liver, Raises Blood Glucose levels.

Stimulates glycogen formation in liver, glucose reuptake in blood, LOWERS Blood Glucose levels.
The Pancreas has Endocrine and Exocrine properties
What are the posterior pituitary hormones?
Oxytocin and ADH
What are the target tissues for Oxytocin?
Uterus and Breast
Purpose of Oxytocin
stimulates smooth muscle contraction, muscle response depends on number of oxytocin receptors which increase during late stages of pregnancy.
Which feedback mechanism controls Oxytocin?
Positive feedback
ADH - Anti-Diuretic Hormone
Inhibits urine production
Where is ADH stored and subsequently released?
ADH is released from the hypothalamus
Why is ADH released from the hypothalamus?
The hypothalamus contains osmoreceptors and releases it in response to increases in solute concentration.
Purpose of ADH?
Causes kidney tubules to reabsorb more water into the body and therefore increase blood volume and possibly vasoconstriction.
Which hormone is considered antagonistic to Calcitonin?
PTH - Parathyroid Hormone because it increases the amount of calcium in the blood.
Where is PTH formed?
Formed in chief cells found in the parathyroid.
What does Calcitonin do?
Calcitonin lowers Blood Calcium levels by inhibiting calcium release from bones, stimulates calcium uptake.
How is glycogen regulated?
Humorally responds to decreased circulating glucose
Pineal gland location?
Floor of third ventricle within diencephalon
Pineal gland produces?

Pineal gland receives indirect inputs from visual system
SCN has melatonin receptors
Thymus gland produces?
Hormonal products Thymopoietins and Thymosins that are important for T cell maturation
The release of gonadal hormones is regulated by?
Testes produce?
Ovaries produce?
estrogens and progesterone
What is Testosterone is responsible for?
Sexual maturation and Sex drive
What are the estrogens and progesterone responsible for?
Sexual maturation and menstrual cycle
Which glands produce the same sex hormones as those produced by adrenal cortex?
How is insulin regulated?
Humoral response to increased circulating glucose
What are two metabolically active iodine-containing hormones?
T4 and T3
Where is t4 produced?
By the the thyroid gland.
Where is T3 formed?
T3 is formed at the target tissue.
How are T3 and T4 regulated?
Falling levels trigger TSH release
Rising levels of T4 inhibits TSH release
Increased energy demands cause TRH release from hypothalamus
How does T3 work?
Increases metabolism by stimulating glucose oxidation
Increases adrenergic receptors in blood vessels
Regulates tissue growth and development
What do the follicle cells in the thyroid produce?
What is colloid?
Iodinated thyroglobin
Which hormones are associated with the thyroid gland?
T3, T4, and calcitonin
Which organs are both endocrine as well as exocrine?
What are hormones
hemical substances secreted by cells into extracellular fluids, that regulate metabolic function of other cells in the body
Most hormones are classified as?
Amino acid-based
Gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are classified as?
Steroid based
Hormonal effects
Alter plasma membrane permeability
Alter protein or regulatory molecule synthesis
Activate or inactivate enzyme
Induction of secretory activity
Stimulate mitosis
Example of hormonal response
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors
Example of humoral response
PTH release in response to changes in calcium levels
Example of neural response
sympathetic activated release of catecholamines from adrenal medulla
Hypothalamus is the....
Connection between brain and endocrine system