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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the breakdown of large molecules by enzymatic addition of water
hydrolosis
-CH(3) group
methyl
the nucleotide used to carry energy in the cell
ATP
-NH(2) group
amnino group
this carbohydrate is used in the transport of food from the leaves to the roots of plants, made of fructose and glucose
sucrose
the formation of large molecules from smaller repeating units
condensation
-COOH group
carboxyl
this polysaccharide is used in plants to store excess carbohydrates
starch
oils are liquid at room temperature because their fatty acid chains have one or more double bonds, which is called this
unsaturated
one of the six-carbon monosaccharides, found in fruit
fructose
a condensation reaction produces this type of or large multi-subunit molecule
polymer
neutral fats, lipid used as a food reserve in many organisms
triglycerides
-OH group
hydroxl
this macromolecule carries protein-building instructions
DNA
some of these lipids can lead to atherosclerosis, but others are exxential in sexual development
sterols
the bond between amino acids
peptide
glucose, galactose, and fructose have the same formule, but the atoms are arranged differently, therefore they are called this
isomers
butter, lard, bacon greade
saturated
this polysaccharide is made of glucose with nitrogen attached
chitin
this polysaccaride is used by animals for energy storage
glycogen
this disaccharide is made of flucose and galactose, and is found in milk
lactose
glycine, phenylaline, valine, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine
amino acids
the monomers are amino acids
proteins
monosaccahrides
monomer of carbohydrate
sequence of amino acids as determined by the DNA (level of protein structure)
primary
the fomation of alpha-helix or beta-pleated sheets in the amino acid chain held in by hydrogen bonds (level of protein structure)
secondary
carbon bonds this many times
four
this polysaccharide is found in plant cell walls, and cannot be broken down by humans
cellulose
this fat, along with phospholipids are used in the construction of biomembranes
cholestoral
the building blocks for ATP, FAD, NAD+, DNA, and RNA
nucleotides
this macromolecule has a 1:2:1 carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ratio
carbohydrate
the loss of treepdimensional structure of a protein as hydrogen bonds break, which causes enzymens to not function and cells die
denaturation
another name for a monomer of carbohydrates; _____ sugar
simple
this waxy coating on fruit keeps the fruit from drying
cuticle
a macromolecule is composed of smaller units
monomer
the interaction of several folded plypeptide chains (a level of protein structure)
quaternary