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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
situation analysis
other considerations (legal, etc)
product analysis
Focuses on the abstract and concrete qualities of the company’s product
consumer analysis
Information that helps us gain a grasp on the (current/potential) consumer
company analysis
what the company is concerned with and what it represents
Public goods
ex: Crocs, IPODs, Jewelry, Cell phones
private goods
Computer accessories, personal grooming products
competitive analysis
Considers all options consumers might think about in their purchasing decision
direct competitors
pepsi, mountain dew
indirect competitors
coke ex: water, tea
market analysis
Helps planners identify which geographic areas are key
Brand development index (BDI)
% of brands total sales in US x 100 / % of total US population
Category development index (CDI)
% of category's total sales in US x 100 / % of total US population
primary sources
can be qualitative, quantitative, or focus groups
quantitative sources

-experiments and surveys
qualitative sources

One on one interviews
secondary sources
focus groups
primary source
It is the organization of the information obtained in the situation analysis.
Company's: Strengths and weaknesses
The environment’s: Opportunities and threats
purpose of SWOT
To define the main issues that must be addressed in the strategic plan
-Clarifies opportunities
-Identifies problems
a good SWOT:
-Has a focus: Maybe more than one analysis
-Searches extensively for competitors
-Does not forget other areas of the company
-Thinks as the consumer (internal/external)
Separates clearly internal from external sources
strength and weakness
Internal factors reflect situation-based considerations within a company’s control
opportunities and threats
External factors reflect situation-based considerations beyond a company’s control
Criteria for alternatives
-Collectively exhaustive
-Independent of one another
-Mutually exclusive
-Relevant to the situation
main elements of case solving
-best alternative
case solving process
-State Problem/Decision
-Situation analysis
-Identify Alternatives
-Establish Criteria
-monetary vs. non-monetary
-Decision & Recommendations
what does advertising do?
-creates knowledge about product
-changes attitudes
-foster relationship with a brand and a consumer.. leads to sales and brand equity
advertising strategy is..
a general plan designed to give campaign a competitive edge
marketing objectives
in terms of expectations for a product performance

-To generate sales
-To increase margins
-To build volume
Communication objectives
in terms of expectations for communication’s influence on consumer attitudes and behavior

-To persuade
-To inform
-To remind
a communication objective is about:
-Awareness: Brand, top-of-mind, attributes
-Comprehension or understanding
how does mkting evaluate things?
final outcomes in concrete terms
-Sales and/or profit
-Shelf facings
how does communication evaluate things?
final outcomes are intangible
-Attitude change
-Evoked set
-Positive consumer perceptions

Ex: To establish top-of-mind awareness in 70% of the target market by the end of November
types of IMC objectives
-communication effects
-behavioral effects
-sales-driven objectives
-Media objectives
-Production objectives
-Finance objectives
-Creative objectives
communication objectives
This objective is set in terms of “soft measures” such as awareness, knowledge, preference

Ex: To establish top-of-mind awareness in 70% of the target market by the end of November.
behavioral objectives
This type of objective uses consumer’s actions as a measure of advertising effects

Ex: To persuade 70% of the target market to try the product by the end of November.
sales-driven objectives
This type of objectives sets IMC goals in terms of sales

Ex: To achieve a 65% repurchase rate among the target market by the end of the introductory year.
objectives should be:
-output oriented
Focused on what the company/brand expects to accomplish in the long term.

Objectives should be quantifiable in order to provide some means for evaluating if the intended effects of IMC were achieved

-Time bounded
objectives should reflect an expectation that specific results will be achieved by specific dates

Objectives should be attainable (not impossible or too easy) and cost effective.

-One purpose
Each objective should be worded so that only one result is associated with each statement
ABCD Method for Writing
A: Audience
current users
previous users
category non-users
brand non users

B: behavior
get current users to continue to use the brand
get current users of the brand to use more

C: condition
fine new uses for the product

D: degree
The formation or change of attitudes or beliefs
Relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person or action
attitudes can be based on:
Experience, exposure, beliefs, etc.
why attitudes important?
They affect our:
Thoughts - cognition
Feelings - affective
Behaviors - connative
characteristics of attitudes
Accessibility - how easily a 'tude can be remembered
Confidence - how strongly we hold onto a 'tude
Persistence - how long it lasts
Resistance - ability to be changed
Knowledge, accurate or not, of an object, issue, person or action.
beliefs can be created/influenced by:
Inference: A process of -“filling in” missing information/conclusion making
Attribution: An inference of the reason for a person’s behavior
Heuristics: Simple inferences (rules of thumb)
ex: If it’s a well-known brand it must be good
in order to be persuaded you need:


inner state of arousal directed to achieve a goal

affect motivation:
Personal relevance
Values, Goals, Needs
Perceived Risk
Inconsistency with attitudes
resources to act

Knowledge and experience
Intelligence, education, age
Monetary resources
time- to consume message
distraction - TV, kids, etc
information - amount, complexity
motivation leads to:
types of involvement
Enduring - experts, over time, automobile fiends
Situational - scooters and me. tires: aren't always looking for them
involvement leads to:

high involvement=high effort
low=low effort
Cognitive Responses
thoughts we have in response to a communication
types of cognitive responses
-Support arguments
-Source derogation
attitudes equation
beliefs x evaluation
Expectancy-value model
High effort cognition based processing
Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)
a model that provides an explanation of how, when, and why attitudes predict behavior
TORA predicts
INTENT, not actual behavior.

too many things affect actual behavior
Influencing attitudes through the source
-Spokesperson credibility
-Company reputation
-Medium itself
Influencing attitudes through the message
-Argument quality
Color of razor (weak)
Quality of blade (strong)
-One versus two-sided messages
one: one perspective
two: comparibility
-Comparative messages
emotional processing
-not necessarily a direct relationship (Rice Krispies)
-Consumers have a strong affective reaction (emotion) which influences attitudes
Influencing attitudes through the source
-Similar to us, likable, familiar
Influencing attitudes through the message
-Emotional appeals
-Fear appeals
Ad attitude affects Brand attitude when:
-More informative ads (utilitarian)
-Ads create positive or negative feelings (hedonic)
-Ads are interesting
Low effort-cognition based processing
Attitudes are based on a few, simple beliefs
Simple inferences
Cues in the ad
Superficial analysis of brand name, country of origin, price, and color
-Simple rules of thumb
-No need to think much to apply them
-Frequency, endorser heuristics are commonly used
low: Influencing attitudes through the source
Credible sources
low: Influencing attitudes through the message
-Category and schema-consistent information
-Large number of message arguments
-Simple messages
-Involving messages
low: Influencing attitudes through context factors
Message repetition
-Helps knowledge acquisition
-Makes the message or brand more familiar
classical conditioning elements
Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
Conditioning is more likely to occur when:
-CS-UCS pairing is relatively novel or unknown
-CS precedes UCS
-CS is paired consistently with the UCS
-Consumer is aware of the pairing
-Logical fit between CS and UCS
low: Influencing attitudes through the source
-Attractive sources
-Likable sources
-Celebrity sources
low: Influencing attitudes through the message
-Pleasant pictures
-Emotionally involving advertising
low: Influencing attitudes through context factors
-Message repetition
-Program or editorial context
High effort: Complex decision making
-Recognition of needs
-Information search
-Evaluation of alternatives
-Purchase decision
-Postpurchase evaluation
Low effort: Simple decision making
-Recognition of needs
-Evaluation of alternatives
-Purchase decision
-Postpurchase evaluation
three major types of decision processes
-High effort:
Extended Problem Solving
-Low effort:
Limited Problem Solving
Routinized Response Behavior
Extended Problem Solving
-Product category or brand is new
-Purchase in the category is infrequent
-More risk involved (financial, social, physical)
-Decisions require a great deal of time and effort
Limited problem solving
-Consumers are not motivated, able or have the opportunity to search for information extensively
-Alternatives are analyzed superficially
-Brand may be new, but category is familiar
-Alternatives are weighted using heuristics
Routinized Response Behavior
-Also called Habitual Problem Solving
-Decisions are made with little or no conscious effort (Auto-pilot)
-Consumer is familiar with brand and category
-Decisions are low risks
-Low or no information search
the process of identifying groups of people with certain shared characteristics within a broad product market.
the focus of all marketing activities toward a previously identified profitable segment of a market.
Basis for Market segmentation
-Product-related traits
-Media usage patterns
-Ethnic and cultural traits
Geographic location
African-American Consumer Market
Identifies consumers with common consumption patterns based on geographic location
-PRIZM clusters
tools used to evaluate geodemographics
Category Development Index (CDI)
Brand Development Index (BDI)
Media usage patterns
part of market segmentation

-Amount of use
-Type of media
part of mkt segmentation

Cultural and Ethnicity
Values are enduring beliefs that a given behavior or outcome is desirable or good.
Psychographics: Lifestyles
This is an external manifestation of values and personality

Values and Lifestyle Survey
Segmentation Primary sources
Company research
Segmentation Secondary sources
BDI/CDI data
SMRB (Simmons)
MRI (Mediamark)
AACM values
Define own style
Hispanic values
Culture, traditions and language
Some resist assimilation, majority use native language at home and socially
Music, arts, sports (soccer, baseball, boxing)
Family and children
Personal appearance and aesthetics
Asian American values
Group harmony and family togetherness
High value on education
Obedience and responsibility to parents
Personal interdependence
GLBT values
Politically active
High social awareness
Career building
Criteria for targeting
Important distinctions can be made in terms of targeting variables
The segment is large enough to be profitable
Consumers in the segment can be reached by an appropriate marketing mix
Brand positioning
The way we want consumers to think about our brand relative to the competition
Why do we position a brand?
Optimize potential and appeal

Establish the competitive reason a consumer should select a brand

To provide consistency in establishing relationships with customers
Essential elements of brand positioning
Consumer needs
Target group
Competitive framework
Reason why
Brand character
Consumer needs can be:
Social: Needs related to other individuals
Nonsocial: Not based on others
needs can also be:
-Functional: Resolve problems
-Symbolic: Self-enhancement, role position, ego, group membership
-Hedonic: Sensory pleasure
Encapsulates the most meaningful product difference between our brand and the competitors

Benefit must be consistent with the product’s attributes
Brand character
Element that addresses who your brand is (traits, image)
Elements of a positioning statement
Consumer needs
Target group
Competitive framework
Reason why
Brand character