Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ionic
A Chemical bond resulting form the attraction between oppositely charged ions
covalent bonds
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
Covalent Bonds Polar
A type of covlaent bond between atoms that differe in electronegitivity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
Covalent Bond Non-polar
A typer of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
hydrogen
A type of weak chemical bond fromed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
Why Does Ice Flot?
Ice flots because it is less dence in solid form. which means it weighs less
strong cohesion
Cohesion is due to hydrogen bonding, which contributes to the transport of water against gravity in plants.
surface tension
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
strong adhesion
The clinging of one substance to another. Adhesion of water to the walls of the vessels help counter the downward pull of gravity
monomers
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Polymer
a long molecule consisiting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
carbohydrates
function: energy storage, structure
• groups: sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
proteins
• function: structure, transport, defense, enzymes
• structure: amino acids, peptide bonds, 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°
lipids
• function: energy storage, structure, hormones
• groups: triglycerides (fats, saturated, unsaturated), phospholipids, steroids (cholesterol, sex hormones)
nucleic acids
• function: information storage
• structure: nucleotides, A,T,C,G,U
• groups: DNA, RNA
Enzymes
Structure
globular (4°) proteins, RNA
• catabolism
(digestion, breakdown, hydrolysis)
anabolism
(synthesis, dehydration synthesis)
lock & key model, induced fit model:
substrate, active site, enzyme-substrate complex, product(s)
Factors that affect function
• pH, temperature, salts, [substrate], [enzyme]
• coenzymes, cofactors
• activators: allosteric, cooperativity
• inhibitors: competitive, noncompetitive, allosteric
• negative feedback
• plants have that animals dont
cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole
• animals have that plants dont
: lysosomes, centrioles
• prokaryotes (bacteria)
: naked circular DNA, ribosomes, no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, sometimes cell wall (peptidoglycans)
eukaryotes
: nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
• phospholipid bilayer
: hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails; fluid mosaic model
integral & transmembrane
: channel, transport, electron transfer
• peripheral
: recognition, receptor, adhesion
Ribosomes
consist of two sub units and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Free ribosomes function in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are for inclusion into the membrane, packaging, or for export from the cell.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
appears to be smooth because it lacks ribosomes on the cytoplasmic surface
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
appears rough because ribosomes stud the cytoplasmic surface. After leaving the endoplasmic reticulum, many transport vesicles travel to the Golgi apparatus.
Lysosomes
are membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules.
Peroxisome
is a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane. They contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen.
Mitochondria
are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work. These are the sites are for cellular respiration, the catabolic process that generates ATP
ATP
ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by organisms.
cell membrane
the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
cell wall
- a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant.
• cell junctions
desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions, plasmodesmata
Cell membrane
selectively permeable membrane
how does the cell membrane move stuff around?
• diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport
• hypertonic,
With a greater solute concentration
hypotonic
lower solute concentration
isotonic
having the same solute concentration as another solution
plasmolysis
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivel and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when cell loses water to hypertonic enviroment
• vesicular transport
exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
cellular resperation equation
• C6H12O6 + 6 O2 . 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
Kreb’s (Citric Acid) Cycle
**all information
pyruvate . acetyl CoA . Kreb’s cycle
• yield: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, CO2 (exhale)
• function: produce electron acceptors for the ETC
• matrix of mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
• NADH & FADH2 donate electrons to ETC, cytochrome carrier proteins in membrane, pump H+ ions to intermembrane compartment, H+ flow down concentration gradient
through ATP synthase, phosphorylate ADP . ATP
Electron transport chain yield
• yield: ~36 ATP
• anaerobic respiration
: no O2, lactic acid (animals), alcoholic fermentation (bacteria, yeast, plants)