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46 Cards in this Set

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What is a strategy? What are its characteristics?
the organization’s overall plan

How it decides what and how it wants to achieve
Focused on action; proactive and responsive
Focused on content of its message; theme, source, content and tone
What is a goal? What are its characteristics?
rooted in the organization’s mission or vision

What you want to achieve stated in general terms
Provide direction but lack measures
Usually set by public relations managers
Difference between 1) relationship management goal, 2) reputation management goal, and 3)task management goal.
Focus on how the organization deals with its publics

Deal with the identity and perception of the organization
Focus on how the organization deals with its publics

Concerned with getting certain things done
What is positioning?
process of managing how an organization distinguishes itself in the minds of its publics

How it is seen and known by its publics as distinct from its competition
It’s unique meaning in the mind of its publics
How we want our organization to be seen by its publics
What is an objective? What are its characteristics?
a statement emerging from the organization’s goals

Clear and measurable statement that lead to awareness, acceptance, or action
“a milestone measuring progress toward a goal”
Established by communication managers, based on broad, organizational goals
Deal with intended outcomes rather than the specifics of how to reach them
What constitutes a good objective?
Goal rooted
Public focused
Impact oriented
Linked to research
What three stages of persuasion make up the hierarchy of objectives?
Awareness objectives deal with information and knowledge (cognitive/thinking part of message)
--Attention, comprehension, retention
Acceptance objectives focus on how people react to information (affective/feeling part of message)
--Interest, attitude
Action objectives address a hoped-for response to information and feelings (conative/behavioral part of message)
--Opinion, behavior
difference between a 1) proactive strategy and a 2) reactive strategy?
1) Initiated by the organization
Implemented according to a plan
Under conditions that best fit the organization’s interests
According to the organization’s timeline
Includes action strategies and communication strategies

2) A response to outside forces; the objectives of which are to:
gain public understanding
maintain and restore reputation
rebuild trust and support
What is adaptation?
the willingness/ability of the organization to change to create harmony with its publics
What is saliency?
talk about what’s applicable/useful to audiences
publicity stunt
A gimmick mainly to gain publicity with little additional value
involves either providing a program directly or the financial, personnel, or other resources for the program

Used to garner visibility and respect among key publics
Should have a logical link between organization and activity sponsored
May be based on existing marketing relationships or appeal to new publics
Can stretch promotional dollars farther than media advertising
strategic philanthropy
funding/supporting communication relations gestures geared to their employees and customers
a confrontational strategy focused mainly on persuasive communication & advocacy model of PR

deals with causes or movements
civil disobedience
nonviolent, nonlegal, generally visual
• street theatre
social and political protests that become dramatizations in public places
control the flow of info into the media
• transparent communication
open and observable activity by an organization helps publics understand the organization and support its actions
• prebuttal
pre-emptive strike when bad news is inevitable
What makes information newsworthy?
information that offers the audience a new idea or the latest development
Usually involves action, adventure, change, conflict, consequence, content, controversy, drama, effect, fame, importance, interest, personality, prominence, proximity…

Signfincance: has meaning beyond the organization
Local: relevant to the coverage area of the news medium
Balance: information is presented objectively; not promotional
Timely: connected to current, high profile issues
Unusual: human interest, novel, rare, unique, offbeat
Fame: involve a well-known or important person
SiLoBaTi + UnFa
Offensive Response Strategies
Attack –
claim the accusation is an attempt by a negligent or malicious accuser to tarnish the organization’s reputation
Embarrassment –
try to lessen an opponent’s influence by using shame or humiliation
Shock –
deliberately agitate the mind or emotions through surprise, disgust, or other strong stimulus
Threat –
promise that harm will come to the accuser or the “teller” of the bad news
Defensive Response Strategies
Denial –
refuse blame; claim it doesn’t exist, didn’t happen, or is not related to the organization
innocence: “We didn’t do it”
mistaken identity: “You have us confused with someone else”
blame shifting: “So-and-so did it”
Excuse –
minimize responsibility for harm or wrongdoing
provocation: “We had no choice”
accident: “It was beyond our control”
victimization: “Criminals targeted us”
association: “We inherited the problem”
Justification –
“we did it, but for good reason”
good intention: “We were trying to do something positive”
context: “Look at it from our side”
idealism: “It was the right thing to do,” “Doing God’s will”
mitigation: “He/She was impaired, sick, coerced, untrained”
Diversionary Response Strategies
Concession –
try to rebuild its relationship with publics by giving them something they want
Use when gift is valued and you can remain committed; or to create favorable publicity
Ingratiation –
charm your publics by “tossing them a bone”
Cosmetic/superficial and ethically questionable
Disassociation –
distance yourself from the wrongdoing
Fire the wrongdoers; separate yourself from them
Relabeling –
Distance yourself from criticism by offering a more agreeable name to replace a negative label from others
Avoid “doublespeak”: deliberately misleading language
Vocal Commiseration Strategies
Concern –
express that you’re not indifferent, but don’t admit guilt
Condolence –
More formal, express grief over someone’s loss or misfortune; but don’t admit guilt
Regret –
Admit sorrow and remorse, offer no apology
Apology –
focused most on public’s interest and least on the organization’s
Rectifying Behavior Strategies
Investigation –
promise to examine the situation and act as facts warrant; short-term way to buy time
Corrective Action –
take steps to contain the problem; repair the damage and/or prevent its recurrence
Restitution –
make amends by compensating victims or restoring the situation to an earlier condition
Repentance –
strongest type; involves a change of heart and change of action; full atonement and turning away from former position while becoming an advocate for a new one
Characteristics of a good apology
Acknowledge you did wrong, express remorse, attempt to repair injustice, promise not to commit the offense again
Must be sincere, timely, and likely go against legal advice
information model of communication
Focused on content and channels of communication
persuasion model of communication
Attempt to influence people using ethical means

Not deception (lying), coercion (threat of force), or propaganda (half-truths or hidden agendas)
Advocacy or asymmetric approach in which an organization presents its point of view to convince publics to give their agreement or support
cybernetic model of communication
circular (two-way) involving feedback
mathematical theory of communication
communication was more linear than information model
cognitive dissonance theory
people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
dialogue model of communication
Deeply conscious communication between two parties in a sincere and competent attempt at mutual understanding
difference between consensus building and conflict resolution
1) identify, prevent, and overcome barriers
2) making peace and restoring harmony
half-truths or hidden agendas
Attempt to influence people using ethical means
using words effectively in speaking and writing to influence, persuade, or entertain
Exchange information between individuals and groups
Help communication partners make responsible and personally acceptable decision
Help revive the original vitality of a relationship
Foster a deep relationship that more closely unites communication partners
primary idea in a speech, editorial, ad, etc.
dishonest language meant to hide facts (“collateral damage,” “downsizing/rightsizing,” “retired for personal reasons”)
three central elements of rhetoric that are the cornerstone of persuasive communication
ethos, logos, pathos
different kinds of propositions.
Factual proposition: something exists based on provable evidence
Objectives based on awareness; increase attention or build understanding
Conjecture proposition: something probably exists based on reasoned conclusion drawn from physical evidence; asks audience to agree
Objectives based on acceptance; fostering supportive attitudes
Value proposition: identifies the virtue of something
Objectives based on acceptance; try to increase interest or build positive attitudes
Policy proposition: identifies a new course of action, encourages adoption
Objectives based on opinion and action
different forms of verbal evidence.
Analogies – Statistics
Comparisons – Testimonies and Endorsements
concerns associated with using fear appeals.
age, education, and gender
characteristics of verbal communication.
Written and spoken words: factors in creative an effective message include:

Message structure
Power Words
Product and Program names
Strong Quotes
Ethical Language
Legal Language
the Gunning Readability Formula
A tool used by writers to measure the level of reading difficulty for any piece of writing and adjust accordingly to the skills of the audience
characteristics or requirements for defamation.
False information
Published or communicated to a third party
Identifies a person
Holds that person or group up to public hatred, contempt, or ridicule
Involves negligence and/or malice by communicator