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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the properly worded recommendation for sodium intake per day for the older adult
1500 mg
rickets is primarily associated with deficiency of vitamin
vitamin plays a key role in transamination
pyridoxide (b6)
deficient nutrient causes megaloblastic anemia
cyanocobalamin (b12)
vitamin has as its primary function the maintenance of calcium homeostasis
vitamin D
serotonin is produced by the body from tryptophan. what nutrient would be most important for this conversion to occur?
pyridoxine (b6)
vitamin C is necessary for
connective tissue synthesis
functions in muscle contraction and helps regulate blood coagulation
iron facilitates transfer of electrons in
the respirator chain
what element is a constituent of vit b12?
too much non-heme iron could increase risk for deficiency of vit A through the adverse interaction with which nutrient?
through action of aldosterone, potassium is:
lost from the body
main univalent cation of intracellular fluid
not commonly recommended
potassium supplements
a B complex vitamin, involved in energy metabolism, water soluble
pantothenic acid
high dietary iron to zinc ratio could lead to
reduced visual acuity
element is a constituent of the thyroid hormones
nutrients have been reported to help improve glucose metabolism/utilization in the body
ionin form of iron that is absorbed the most efficiently
in proper levels of intake, a primary function of ascorbic acid is to act as an
the storage chemical 5-methyl THF requires the action of this nutrient in order to form its active state
vitamin believed to function like a steroid hormone
calcitriol (active vit D)
vitamin directs cellular differential of epithelial cells
plays a contributing role in hydroxyapatite crystal formation
blood coagulation and bone metabolism (osteocalcin activity)
vit K
best nutrient to promote carboxylation reactions
functions in decarboxylation reactions, is a fatty acid derivative (sulfur derivative), funtions in antioxidant choices
lipoic acid
reduces inorganic iron to allow a more efficient absorption into the gut cell
ascorbic acid
glycoprotein that serves as a transporter of copper
ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin)
as blood homocysteine increases, risk for cardiovascular disease
low stomach acid would enhance gut microbes which may produce
vit k
supplement together
folic acid and b12
high levels of what are found in certain foods like the red tomato. cooking and fat enhances absorption
intakes of zinc over the UL can induce
hypochromic microcytic anemia
very toxic at high levels
retinyl acetate supplements, instead use pro-vit A carotenoids
transketolase activation is used to determine the nutritional status for
b1 (thiamin)
UL for ascorbic acid (a pro-oxidant at high levels)
2 g/day
deficient nutritients will lead to hypochromic microcytic anemia
pyridoxine, Fe, copper
IOM raised the high end range of fat intake to
lower the GI of the diet
certain forms of kidney disease could cause
bone disease
causes sodium and water to be reabsorbed and potassium is lost
nicotinic acid (b3)has the following affect (g doses per day)
reduction in LDL, reduction in VLDL, elevation in HDL
two minerals that are part of the hydroxyapatite
calcium and phosphorus
nutrients that help promite normal blood pressure
potassium, magnesium, calcium
atheletes training in heat and humidity have elevated levels of what (helps conserve na and water)
newborns and long-term vegetarians cause increased risk for
vit K deficiency
found in dark green leaves plus gut fermentation
vit K
important for kinase reactions and energy metabolism
promotes phosphorylation in energy pathways
kinase reactions
vit b6 is indirectly involved in energy metabolism due to its role in forming:
activates osteocalcin
vit K
current potassium intake recommendation
4700 mg/day
due to poor absorption from food, those over 50 should take
b12 supplements
excessive intake increases risk for internal hemorrhage
vit E
activation can be used to determine the nutritional status for riboflavin
glutathione reductase
zinc intake over UL (40 mg) may cause deficiency in iron utilization due to adverse affects on
body can convert some carotenoid forms into
vit A
form of alpha-tocopherol that is not active
biochemical that's synthesized with the help of vit C underscores the importance of vit C to fat metabolism
acetyl-CoA contains
pantothenic acid
an FDA approved color additive and used in tanning pills
fat soluble vit that has as a principal function the mainenance of membrane integrity
tocopherols (vit E)
proper wording for labeling low sodium food
less than or equal to 140 mg/day
folate is vitally important for dividing cells during growth because of its role in the synthesis of
purines and pyrimidines
enhance the uptake of non-heme iron into the gut cell
ascorbic acid, lactic acid, fish
mineral essential in the action of glutathione peroxidase in the reduction of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide
selenium (antioxidant)
superoxide dismutase (needed to protect the body from superoxide radicals) requires this for activity
manganese, copper, zinc
food with isoflavones to reduce cancer risk
soy milk (1 c/day) about 40 mg isoflavones/cup
carotenoids can be
red, yellow, orange
contain all eight major forms of vit E
certain nuts like almonds
eat to increase carotenoid consumption
spinach (colors are hidden by chlorophyll)
strong anti-oxidants
rich carotenoid food
sweet potato
food chemical that is a carotenoid
benefits obtained from vegetables, lowers risk for H. pylori induced ulcers, reduce risk for several human cancers, an isothiocyanate, found in brocolli, induces hepatic detoxifying enzymes
structural varients of vit E
major dietary source for lignans (phytoestrogen) and may lower cancer risk
phytoestrogen supplements may be
deep red tomato sauce is a food signigicant in
high ORAC food
red grape juice (deep purple foods)
best food choice for sulfurophane
brocolli (a Brassica vegetable)
important for eye health
lutein, zeaxanthin
3rd group of phytoestrogens: stilbene
resveratrol (not a carotenoid)
plant sterols have structures similar to
cholesterol (lowers cholesterol absorption, present in new margarine)
can interfere with cholesterol absorption, present in certain margarine
plant sterols
best for phytonutrient allicin is
garlic (alliin to allicin with air exposure and enzyme alliinase)
increase production of cellular phase-2 enzymes thereby reducing the risk for certain cancers
phytochemicals in brassica vegetables
carotenoids can form this in the human body
vit A
deficiency will induce large red cell anemia
folacin, B12, Vit E
isothiocyanate-like chemicals increase cellular production of phase-2 enzymes thereby potentially having
an anti-cancer effect
the HMS enzyme transketolase is an excellent measure of nutritional assessment of:
active coenzyme of vit B12 is:
deficiency of the cobalamins is a condition that causes
peripheral nerve damage
pyridoxal phosphate is important in potentially reeducing risk for:
cardiovascular disease
biochemical action relates most closely to folacins role in purine metabolism
methyl transfer (single carbon transfer)
to obtain a more effective B12 metabolism, one should purchase as a supplement:
cyanocobalamin coenzyme
Vit C is necessary for:
a strong connective tissue through hydroxylation reactions
functions of purine/pyrimidine synthesis
protection and repair of DNA
organic molecule with an attached essential mineral
ligand (cobald in vit B12)
adding methyl group to homocystein makes....
formed in nerve cells and makes chemicals to form myelin sheath
DRI for Vit B12
2.4 mcg
supplemental B12 is NOT:
a protein complex
deficiency of B12 causes:
nerve damage
defeciency of B12 can take several years to develop because of:
large body stores of B12 and because of enterhepatic reabsorption
stomach surgery/disease may cause:
decreased IF, decreased acid, decreased pepsin, decreased "R" factor
ileal surgery/disease may cause:
decreased receptors for B12 absorption
vegans, stomach surgery, ileal surgery, parasitism, achlorhydria, alcoholism, elderly, individuals lacking IF
where B12 deficiency can be seen