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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
folacin deficiency in various stages of the life cycle can lead to:
birth defects, gastrointestinal tract disorder, impairment of cell division
pyridoxine (B6) is necessary for producing:
active coenzyme forms for folacin in human metabolism
supplemental form of folacin, absorbed more efficiently that natural food forms
monoglutamate form ("folic acid")
pteridine nucleus is a component of:
folacin derivatives
a ligand is a type of:
form of dietary fiber (non-CHO)
class of phytoestrogens
Vit B12 has no:
the main source for vit B12 in natural systems (natural foods) is:
microbial syunthesis
reliable source for vit B12 for vegans:
nutritional yeast
what vitamin is important for the reaction pyruvate + carbon dioxide = oxaloacetate
thiamin functions in:
nicotinic acid helps elevate:
functions in amino acid metabolism
Vit B12
necessary for the conversion of homocystein to cystathionine
pyuridoxine (Vit B6)
a drug that interferes with the homocysteine methyl transferase reaction may increase risk for:
deficiency of vit B12 will produce the same type of anemia as a deficiency of folacin:
megaloblastic anemia
can be methylated to methionine
the main supplement form recommended for vit B12 is:
an active coenzyme of vit B12 that participates in human metabolism:
Vit K deficiency is most likely due to:
oral antibiotic therapy
is a supplement currently sold in the US, can be synthesized in human metabolism, is fromed from methionine
functions for oxidize iron so iron can be transported in the blood
poultry protein, ascorbic acid, and fish protein enchances absorption of:
non-heme iron
major function for thiamin is:
ATP formation
best selection for involvement in carnitine synthesis:
ascorbic acid
Vit E and Vit C work together in:
antioxidant pathways
transketolase is activated by:
involved in energy metabolism
pantothenic acid
folacin deficiency causes impairment in:
pyrimidine/purine synthesis
lowers risk for DNA damage
activates 5-methyl THF, necessary for the methionine synthase reaction, deficiency induces large cell anemia, deficiency impairs nerve function
Vit B12
biochemical action that relates most closely to folic acid:
formyl group transfer
directs cellular differentiation of epithelial cells:
retinol (Vit A)
main coenzyme involved in the alanine amino transferase reaction:
PLP (B6)
deficiency causes scurvy with symptions related to poor connective tissue formation:
ascorbic acid
primary function of Vit D:
calcium homeostasis
iron shares a common absorption pathway with:
an antioxidant, can help protect cell membrane integrity:
vit E
cobalt is involved in:
methionine synthesis
main active coenzyme forms for folic acid are derivatives of:
tetra-hydrofolic acid
iodine is a constituent of:
major role of riboflavin:
component of FAD
adding an -OH to various biochemicals, protection of nitric oxide, synthesis of norepinephrine
vit C
important for maintenance of normal blood pressure
important for phosphorylation reactions and therefore involved in energy metabolism
an isothiocyanate, may lower risk for gastric ulcers, found at high levels in certain brassica vegetables
stilbenes, isoflavones, lignans
flax is a major source of:
dietary lignans
phytosterols have this effect on blood cholesterol levels:
deficiency in copper induces:
hypochromic, mycrocytic anemia
in the urine of patients exhibiting vit B12 deficiency, methylmalonic acid:
amount of Vit B12 absorbed by diffusion:
1-3 %
red cell breakage used as an assessment measure for which nutrient:
bone mineral loss may increase due to:
proton pump blockers
intrinsic factor and ileum receptors enhance absorption of:
Vit B12
intakes of zinc over the UL may induce:
hypochromic, microcytic anemia
nutritional yeast, tempeh, cheese:
dietary sources for Vit B12
best method for vit B12 administration:
pill form
sodium recommendation for older adults:
1500 mg/day
needed for activity of glutathione peroxidase:
ionic form of iron absorbed most efficiently:
Fe +2
functions in decarboxylation reactions, is a fatty acid derivative, can function as an antioxidant
lipoic acid
potassium recommendation
4700 mg/day
B6 and iron lead to:
poorly colored and small red cell (hypochromic and microcytic)
copper, zinc, and manganese are required for:
superoxide dismutase activity
ascorbic acid reduces:
inorganic iron allowing more efficient absorption into gut cells
certain forms of kidney disease can increase risk for:
bone disease
activation of osteocalcin is related to:
vit K
pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine (all converted to PLP)
forms of vit B6
main form of vit B6 in the blood; needs riboflavin
pyridoxal phosphate
coenzyme form of vit B6
tryptophan converted to this with vit C
tyrosine converted to:
histidine converted to:
methionine converted to:
vit B6 RDA
1.3 mg
B6 necessary for production of:
deficiency of B6, Fe, Cu
hypochromic, microcytic anemia
LOAE for vit B6
500 mg/day
found in the urine after a tryptophan load
xanthurenic acid
folic acid supplement doesn't need to be activated by:
Fe -> Fe
+2 -> +3
Transketolase is activated by:
large doses of nicotinic acid may lower:
LDL cholesterol
nicotinic acid may have this effect on blood sugar:
form of niacin used for blood lipid control
acid form
form of nicotinic acid more apt to cause hepatotoxicity
slow release
if an enzyme is activated in vitro, the pt is in this nutritional status:
main coenzyme in vit B6 metabolism:
SAMe cannot be taken by patients using:
used as treatment for certain depressive disorders and osteoarthritis
SAMe cannot be used by patients with:
used for estimating the nutritional status for riboflavin
glutathione reductase
Vit C increases absorption of:
inorganic iron
spongy bleeding gums, petechial hemorrhage, ecchymoses (bruises) and perifolliculosis
signs of vit C deficiency
the chewable acid forms of vit C may cause:
dental erosion
may improve dilation of the small blood vessels that control pressure, to reduce BP
vit C
soy foods, wheat germ, rice bran, almond, walnut, peanuts, pistachio, canola oil
full spectrum vit-E foods
RDA for Vit E
1.5 IU
protects cell membranes, protects lung tissue from air oxidants, protects eicosanoids (made from EFA's)
functions of Vit E
hydrogen peroxide hemolysis test is this kind of test
functional test
dark green leaves, deep yellow/orange fruit/vegetable, red sweet pepper, broccoli, red tomato
food sources of lycopene
pink color in sea food
1 RAE =
1 mcg retinol or 12 mcg b-carotene
night blindness, bitot's spots, xerosis and xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, blindness, cirrhosis, follicular hyperkeratosis of the skin and susceptability to cancer
signs of vit A deficiency
lower percentage of RDR is:
deficient <10, marginal 10-30, acceptable >30
normal serum retinol
visual fxn test measured by:
light/dark adaptation
fish liver oils are very high in:
retinol and vit D
AMD stands for:
age-related macular degeneration
amount of lycopene in tomato juice
24 mg
lower LDL, increase blood homocystein, reduce adipose tissue lipolysis
transketolase is activated by:
thiamin containing coenzyme
promote synthesis of biogenic amines is an action of:
vit B6
supplements meet appropriate standards for absorption like those established by the USP
vit C
excellent source of vit C supplement
calcium ascorbate
current RDA for young adult male is:
90 mg
RDA for young adult female:
75 mg
phylloquinone refers to what nutrient:
vit K
bitot spot is a deficiency of:
vit A
an ezyme activated in vitro, the pt is of:
poor nutritional status