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28 Cards in this Set

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Open fractures (compound )
allows for bacteria to enter the injured area which increases the risk of complications. Tx incl surgical debridement/irrigation, tetanus, Abx, immobilization.
fat embolism - s/sx
complication of a long bone fracture. Fat globules lodge in the pulmonary or peripheral circulation. Characterized by neurologic dysfunction, pulmonary insufficiency, petechial rash on the chest, axillla, and upper arms.
fat embolism - tx
Early stabilization of long bone fractures is preventative for FES. Corticosteroids may be given to decrease the inflammatory response of lung tissues, stabilize lipid membranes and reduce bronchospasm.
Neurovascular assessments
checking the distal area of the affected area because concerned with lack of pulse, temperature and if capillary refill is diminished. As well as color, movement and sensation.
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation. Surgical procedure where the fracture is reduced (placed in correct anatomic alignment) and nails, screws, plates or pins are inserted to hold the bones in place.
ORIF - priority ND
Risk for infection
Osteoarthritis - Tx/NI
Priority intervention is the manage pain usually with NSAIDs. Must also monitor for GI bleeds and gastritis with high doses of NSAIDs
Osteoporosis - modifiable RF
low estrogen, low testosterone, dietary (low calcium intake and vit D def.), meds (corticosteroids, some anticonvulsants), lifestyle (inactivity, smoking, ETOH)
Osteoporosis - non-modifiable RF
older age, family Hx of OP, Hx of fractures, female (esp. Caucasian/Asian), thin and/or small frame
Fracture - Tx
before a fractured bone is stabilized for healing, the fracture is reduced or restored to its normal alignment. Cast placed. Closed-reduced by external manipulation, Open reduction via surgery where bone is exposed and realigned with screws/nails to maintain position.
Repetitive Strain Injuries- S/Sx
Carpel tunnel - numbness/tingling of the thumb, index/middle fingers, pain interferes with sleep, affected hand becomes weak and unable to perform activities that require precision. Bursitis and Epicondylitis are other RSIs.
Repetitive Strain Injuries- mgmt
immobilize and rest the involved joint. Splint and ice area. Surgery for pt that
Injury prevention
wearing helmets, stretching, anything that promotes health.
Sprain - Tx
RICE - rest, ice, compression and elevation
NI-neurovascular checks, palpate for hotspots, report increased pain, change in neuro or drainage. Pt ed. - casts dries from inside out, Nothing in the cast, warm sensation is normal while drying; keep clean and dry, Do not use finger tips if still wet...use palms of hand.
Post Hip Surgery
Assist pt with ambulation (walker, cane). Look for ways for safe mobility.
carpel tunnel syndrome
Narrowing of the tunned/canal where flexor tendons and the median nerve pass from the wrist to the hand. The compression of the nerve is a result of inflammation and swelling of the synovial lining of the tendon sheaths.
Calcium rich foods
dairy products, canned salmon, sardines, broccoli, spinach and tofu. Vit D needed to help w/ absorption.
pathological fractures
aka stress fractures, caused by a disease that has weakened the bone.
Osteoporosis - mgmt
Use weight bearing exercises.
s/sx- butterfly rash, joint pain, pericarditis, Inflammatory disease of connective tissue. Multiple systems are involved. Women are mostly affected. Genetic disposition.
Lupus - Tx
ASA, NSAIDs, Plaquenil, Corticosteroids, Immunosuppressive drugs, pronestyl
Rheumatoid Arthritis
usually effect women, there are remissions and exacerbations; cause unknown; systemic manifestations incl. fatigue, weakness, anorexia, wt loss, fever, anemia. Typically affects joints bilaterally.
used to dx bone mineral density or bone mass.
Paget’s Disease
progressive metabolic skeletal disorder that results from localized excessive metabolic activity in bone, with excessive bone resorption followed by excessive bone formation. S/Sx pain, deformity, pathologic fractures, compression fx, muscle weakness, hearing loss, demential, spinal cord injuries, pain, bladder/bowel dysf.; heart failure
skeletal vs skin traction
skin traction is noninvasive, pulling force thru the pts skin. Most common is Buck’s traction (boot or tape used). Skeletal traction pulling force is applied thru pins inserted to the bone. Allows more wt to be used to maintain proper traction. Risk for infection is greater.
amputation - open/guillotine
performed when infection is present. wound is left open to drain. when infection is no longer present the wound is surgically closed.
amputation - closed
wound is closed with a flap of skin that is sutured in place over the stump.