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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the process of wastage of snow or ice, especially by melting
the part of a glacier's surface, usually at lower elevations, over which ablation exceeds accumulation
ablation area/zone
a sharp, narrow, often pinnacled ridge, formaed as a result of glacial erosion from both sides
a group of crescent-shaped friction crackes on bedrock, formed by the juddering effect of moving ice.
an armchair-shaped hollow with steep sides and back wall, formed as a result of glacial erosion high on a mountainside, and often containing a rock basin with a tarn
a high-level pass formed by glacial breaching of an arete or mountain mass
the welsh term for cirque, also sometimes used more generally outsided wales
a streamlined hillock, commonly elongated parallel to the former ice flow direction, composed of glacial debris, and sometimes having a bedrock core; formed beneath an actively flowing glacier
the line or zone on a glacier's surface where a year's ablation balances a year's accumulation. it is determined at the end fo the albation season, and commonly occurs at the boundary between superimposed ice and glacier ice.
equilibrium line/zone
a boulder or large block of bedrock that is being or has been transpoerted away from its source by a glacier
A long, commonly sinuous ridge of sand and gravel, deposited by a stream in a subglacial tunnel.
A mass of ice, irrespective of size, derived largely from snow, and continuously moving from higher to lower ground, or sperading over the sea.
A glacier that spills out from a high level cirque or clings to a steep mountainside.
Hanging Glacier
A tributary valley whose mouth ends abruptly part-way up the side of a trunk valley, as a result of the greater amount of glacial downcutting of the latter.
Hanging Valley
a steep-sided pyramid-shaped peak, formed as a result of the backward erosion of cirquee glaciers on three or more sides
a period of time when large ice sheets extend from the polar regions into temperate latitudes. the term is sometimes used synonymously with 'glacial period', or embraces several such periods do define a major phase in earth's climatic history.
ice age
a large slab of ice floating on the sea, but remaining attached to and partly fed by land-based ice
ice shelf
A period of time, such as the present day, when ice still covers part of the arth's surface, but has retreated to the polar regions.
Interglacial Period
a steep-sided hill of sand and gravel deposited by glacial streams adjacent to a glacier margin
A self-contained bowl-shaped depression within an area covered by glacial stream deposits, often containing a pond.
the period of time that led to expansion of valley and cirque glaciers world-wide, with their maximum extents being attained in about 1700-1850 AD in many temperate regions and around 1900 in Arctic regions
Little Ice Age
A year-by-year measure of the state of health of a glacier, reflecting by the balance between accumulation and ablation.
Mass Balance/Budget
distinct ridge or mound of debris laid down directly by a glacier or pushed up by it. the material is mainly till, but fluvial, lake or marine sediments may also be involvved
moraine (lateral, medial, fluted, terminal, recessional, annual, push)
A lake- or sea-filled bedrock depression carved out by a glacier.
Rock Basin
bedrock that has been pulverized at the bed of a glacier into clay-and silt-sized particles. it commonly is carried in suspension in glacial meltwater streams, which consequently take on a milky appearance.
rock flour
the annual layering that forms from the accumulation of snow, and that is preserved in firn and sometimes in glacier ice.
sedimentary stratification
Linear, fine scratches formed by the abrasive efffect of debris-rich ice sliding over bedrock.
a small lake occupying a hollow eroded out by ice or dammed by a moraine; especially common in cirques.
a mixture of mud, sand, and gravel-sized material deposited directly ffrom glacier ice
a glacier bounded by the walls of a valley and descending from high mountains, from an ice cap on a plateau, for from an ice sheet
valley glacier