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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name a nonselective irreversible alpha blocker
phenoxybenzamine
name a nonselective reversible alpha blocker
phentolamine
what is the mechanism of phenoxybenzamine
nonselective irreversible alpha blocker
what is the mechanism of phentolamine
nonselective reversible alpha blocker
what are phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine used for
pheochromocytoma
what are the side effects of nonselective alpha blockers
orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
name 3 alpha-1 selective adrenergic blockers
prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
what is the mechanism of prazosin
alpha-1 selective adrenergic blocker
what is the mechanism of terazosin
alpha-1 selective adrenergic blocker
what is the mechanism of doxazosin
alpha-1 selective adrenergic blocker
what are alpha-1 selective adrenergic alpha blockers used for
hypertension, urinary retention in BPH
what are the side effects of alpha-1 blockers
orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache
what is prazosin used for?
hypertension, urinary retention in BPH
what drugs have the same action as prazosin
terazosin, doxazosin
what are the side effects of terazosin?
orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache
what selective alpha blockers cause orthostatic hypotension
phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, terazosin, prazosin, doxazosin
name an alpha-2 selective adrenergic blocker
yohimbine
what is yohimbine used for
impotence (effectiveness controversial)
what alpha blockers are used to treat pheochromocytoma
phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine
name some beta-blockers
propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, nadolol, timolol, pindolol, esmolol, labetalol
what is the mechanism of propanolol
nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker
what is the mechanism of metoprolol
selective beta-1 blocker
what is the mechanism of esmolol
selective beta-1 blocker
what is the mechanism of pindolol
non selective beta-adrenergic blocker (partial agonist)
what are beta-blockers used to treat
hypertension, angina, MI, SVT, CHF, glaucoma
how do beta blockers treat hypertension
decrease cardiac output, decrease renin secretion
how do beta blockers treat angina
decrease heart rate, decrease cardiac contractility, decreased O2 consumption
why are beta blockers used to treat MI
decrease MI mortality
which beta blockers are used to treat SVT
propanolol, esmolol
how do propanolol and esmolol treat SVT
decrease AV conduction velocity
how do beta blockers treat CHF
slow progression of chronic failure
which beta blocker is used to treat glaucoma
timolol betaxolol carteolol
what is timolol used to treat glaucoma
decrease secretion of aqueous humor
what are the toxic effects of beta blockers
impotence, exacerbation of asthma, caution in diabetes
what are the cardiovascular toxic effects of beta blockers
bradychardia, AV block, CHF
what are the CNS adverse effects of beta blockers
sedation, sleep alterations
which beta blockers are beta-1 selective
acebutolol, betaxolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol (A BEAM of beta-1 blockers)
which beta-1 blocker is short-acting
esmolol
which beta blockers are non-selective
propanolol, timolol, pindolol, nadolol, labetalol
which beta blocker also blocks alpha receptors
labetalol (all others are spelled "olol")
which alpha agonists are used to treat glaucoma
epinephrine, brimonidine
which beta blockers are used to treat glaucoma
timolol, betaxolol, carteolol
which cholinomimetics are used to treat glaucoma
pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine, echothiophate
which diuretics are used to treat glaucoma
acetazolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide
which prostaglandin is used to treat glaucoma
latanoprost
what classes of drugs are used to treat glaucoma
alpha agonists, beta blockers, cholinomimetics, diuretics, prostaglandins (*mnemonic -- treating glaucoma is easy as ABCD)
what is the effect of epinephrine in glaucoma
increase outflow of aqueous humor
what are the side effects of epinephrine treatment in glaucoma
mydriasis, stinging
what glaucoma should epinephrine NOT be used for
closed-angle glaucoma
what is the effect of brimonidine in glaucoma
decreased aqueous humor synthesis
what are the side effects of brimonidine treatment in glaucoma
no pupillary or vision changes
what is the effect of beta-blocker treatment in glaucoma
decrease aqueous humor secretion
what are the side effects of beta blocker treatment in glauzoma
no pupillary or vision changes
what is the effect of cholinomimetics in glaucoma
ciliary muscle contraction, opening of trabecular meshwork, increase outflow of aqueous humor
what are the side effects of cholinomimetics in glaucoma
miosis, cyclospasm
what is the effect of diuretic treatment in glaucoma
inhibition of carbonic anhydrase --> decrease HCO3 secretion --> decrease aqueous humor secretion
what are the side effects of diuretics in glaucoma
no pupillary or vision changes
what is the effect of prostaglandin (latanoprost) treatment in glaucoma
increase outflow of aqueous humor
what is the side effect of prostaglandin treatment in glaucoma
darkens color of iris (browning)
which drugs used to treat glaucoma increase outflow of aqueous humor
cholinomimetics, prostaglandin, epinephrine
can you use epinephrine in closed-angle glaucoma
NO
brimonidine is used to treat what eye disease
glaucoma
what kind of drug is latanoprost
prostaglandin
latanoprost is used to treat what eye disease
glaucoma
which glaucoma drugs decrease aqueous secretion
beta blockers, diuretics