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76 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 zones of the outer adrenal glands?
1. Glomerulosa
2. Fasciculata
3. Reticularis
What does each Adrenal zone produce?
1. Glomerulosa - Mineral corticoids; ALDOSTERONE.
2. Fasciculata - glucocorticoids; CORTISOL.
3. Reticularis - Adrenal Androgens; SEX hormones.
What does the outer adrenal gland compose, what type of gland is it?
cortex: 80-90% of the adrenals.
Gland that produces STEROIDS.
What is the inner adrenal gland?
How much of the adrenal gland?
What does it produce?
Adrenal Medulla; 10-20% of the whole gland.
Produces CATECHOLAMINES: Norepinephrine & Epinephrine.
What is special about the adrenal medulla?
It is a modified sympathetic ganglion.
What is the name of the cells in the adrenal medulla that synthesize and secrete hormone?
Chromaffin cells - synthesize Norepi and Epi and package in vesicles.
(have high affinity for chromaffin stain)
What causes chromaffin cells to release their vesicle contents into the blood stream?
Input from preganglionic sympathetic neurons; they release AcH which causes synapse.
What are the ratios of epi and norepi output by the adrenal medulla?
80-90% Epinephrine

10-20% Norepi
what are other names for epi and norepi?
Adrenaline, noradrenaline
What type of hormone are epi and norepi again?
Catecholamines
What is the major role of the hormones produced by the adrenal medulla (epi and norepi)?
to protect the body against hypoglycemia.
What stimulates and regulates epinephrine/norepi secretion?
1. Low blood glucose
2. Exercise
3. Cold
4. Pain
5. Anger/stress
What is the function of the catecholamines?
The FIGHT OR FLIGHT response
-increase blood glu
-incr. cardiac output, FFA, blood flow to muscles.
-Decreased GI activity.
Why do we have an adrenal medulla?
To provide a response to acute and short term stress - by storing epi in vesicles, you don't have to wait for its synthesis.
Why are epi and norepi especially valuable hormones?
because they act on nervous system in places where nerves can't go, b/c they are transported by the bloodstream.
How does Epi affect blood vessels?
What caues this?
It dilates vessels in skeletal muscle;
-caused by B2 adrenergic receptor stimulation.
What has a better effect when released; epinephrine or nor?
Epi - 10x better.

Because norepi does not act on Beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
What are the 2 effects of Epi and Norepi on the pancreas?
1. Increased glucagon release
2. Decreased Insulin release
What are the 2 effects of Epi and Norepi on the liver?
1. Increased Gluconeogenesis
2. Increased glycogenolysis
-Breaks down glycogen to increase blood glucose.
What is the effect of Epi and Norepi on skeletal muscle?
Increased glycogenolysis - breaks it down to use the glucose right in the muscle.
What is the effect of Epi and Norepi on adipose tissue?
Increased lipolysis to break down Triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids for gluconeogenesis.
how specifically do Epi/norepi cause increased lipolysis?

Glycogenolysis?
By increasing Hormone sensitive lipase.

Glycogen phosphorylase
What are two differences between hormones of the adrenal cortex and medullar?
1. Cortical hormones are lipophilic - not H2O soluble.
2. Cortical hormones are not stored; only synth and released as needed.
What induces release of Cortisol and glucocorticoids?
Stress - physical or emotional.
What pattern governs how corticoids are released?
Circadian rythms.
Increased release in AM
Decreased at night.
How does ACTH affect the adrenal cortex?
1.Simulates synthesis and release of cortisol
2. Upregulates steroidogenic enzymes
3.Increases cell size of synthesizing cells in the cortex.
What region of the cortex produces cortisol and glucocorticoids?
the zona fasciculata

(glomerulosa acts on the renal glomerulus, mineralcorticoids)
what is the prohormone for ACTH?
Pro-opiomelanocortin
What happens to the adrenals if ACTH stimulation is decreased?
They atrophy and become smaller.
What is the whole pathway for cortisol release stimulation and inhibition?
1. Hypothalamus produces CRH in response to stress.
2. Anterior pituitary produces ACTH
3. ACTH travels to pituitary and causes cortisol release.
4. Cortisol decreases insulin
How does ACTH cause cortisol synthesis/secretion, in contrast to how EPI/norepi are?
It upregulates enzymes for gene expression; in general turns on Cortisol synthesis - takes TIME for the response.
Why do we need to know that POMC is the prohormone for ACTH?
Because the 1st 13 amino acids on its protein are alpha-MSH; high ACTH concentrations cause melanocyte stim, pigmentation.
How does glucocorticoid synthesis/release fluctuate?
Circadially - lowest at midnight, highest mid-morning.
why is there a rythm to glucocorticoid release?
To respond to stress fluctuations normal to every person.
why are glucocorticoids vital for life?
Without them you can't deal with stress, or prolonged fasting.
What are the 3 main things glucocorticoids effect?
1. Metabolism
2. Stress
3. Inflammation
How do glucocorticoids affect metabolism?
Cortisol has an anti-insulin effect; result is to increase plasma glucose, amino acid, and calcium levels.
How does cortisol affect bones?
Increases break-down, can be a cause of osteoporosis.
Why are glucocorticoids important for dealing w/ stress?
-necessary for coping (idiopath)
-necessary for vascular smooth muscle to constrict
-affects norepi/epi release by blood flow from cortex-medulla
What affect does cortisol have on immunity?
suppresses immune response - an anti-inflammatory.
Why are mineralcorticoids important?
because they regulate Na/K levels, thus blood pressure, salt and water balance.
What two things stimulate Aldosterone?
-Decreased blood pressure/Na levels (detected by juxtamed apparatus)
-Increased sympathetic activity
By what pathway/system is aldosterone regulated?
The renin-angiotensin system:
Angiotensinogen is activated by Renin; angiotens 1 activates to Angiotens II, and increases aldosterone.
what is the main stimlulator of aldosterone, and what is the affect?
Angiotensin II, produced by the lungs; causes general vasoconstriction.
What is the function of mineralcorticoids in a nutshell?
Regulate Salt/Water balance by:
-Increasing Na reabsorption
-Increasing K/H excretion
finish this!
ok
What 3 effects can Cortisol incur on the body at HIGH concentrations?
1. Psychotic effects on mood
2. Osteoporosis (bone bkdown)
3. Immunosuppressant
What are the NORMAL effects Cortisol has on the body?
Increased GLUCONEOGENEIS by
1. Skeletal muscle breakdown of glucose -> free amino acids
2. Liver glycogen breakdown -> free glucose
3. BLOCKING insulin to prevent glycogenesis.
What is the response to increased plasma glucose from cortisol's stimulation?
it actually feedsback to incrase insulin levels in response to high blood glucose.
How do blood glucose levels change as the body transfers from fed to fasting states?
1. Blood glucose rises initially, in response to Cortisol.
2. Then gluconeogenesis stops when glycogen is exhausted; fatty acids + ketone bodies then take over.
OK keren, HOW DOES ALDOSTERONE CONTROL WATER AND SALT BALANCE?
(3 things)
1. Stimulates Na+ reabsorption
2. Stimulates K+ excretion
3. Stimulates H+ excretion.
3 things that stimulate RENIN secretion:
1. Decreased Na levels
2. Decreased blood pressure
3. Increased sympathetic NS activity
What happens when Renin is stimulated?
The angiotensin system, which ultimately results in increased aldosterone synthesis.
What are the 2 Adrenal Androgens?
1. DHEA - dehydroepiandrosterone
2. Androstenedione
How does DHEA work, and what does the body do with it?
1. Mimics testosterone and binds its receptors WEAKLY.
2. Body converts DHEA to testosterone in tissues.
What is the role of DHEA in
-Men?
-Women?
-Both?
Men - has no role!
Women - probly causes hair growth, libido.
Both - probly involved in development before puberty.
What is the one disorder that occurs in the adrenal medulla?
Pheochromocytoma
What in the world is Pheochromocytoma?
A tumor of the chromaffin cells - therefore more Epi and Norepi are produced - makes you have high blood pressure.
What are the 3 disorders of the Adrenal Cortex?
1. Cushing's syndrome
2. Addison's disease
3. Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia.
What causes Cushing's syndrome?
1. Therapeutic glucocorticoids causing high cortisol levels.
2. Hypothalamic, pituitary, or adrenal tumor
-In general: HIGH CORTISOL
what is the result of high cortisol seen in Cushing's?
-Moon face/buffalo hump
-fat re-distribution
-Immune suppression
-poor wound healing
-muscle wasting
-high blood glucose.
How does Addison's disease compare to Cushing's, pathologically?
Cushing = cortisol overproductn
Addison = ADRENAL insufficiency - cortisol AND aldosterone.
What causes addison's disease?
an autoimmune disorder where cortisol AND aldosterone are decreased; resulting ACTH increase causes pigmentation.
What are the symptoms of addison's disease?
-from low cortisol, inability to deal with stress, weak, fatigue.
-from low aldosterone, low blood volume, hypotensive - death.
-from high ACTH, hyperpigment.
What is the underlying problem in congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
An enzyme needed to synthesize the adrenal steroids is missing; The precursors of are shunted over to the ANDROGEN pathway.
What is the result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
-Cortisol/aldosterone are low
-Androgens (DHEA and androstenedione are high;
-women/children are masculinized
-men have low sperm counts
-addison symptoms too
What is the one disorder that occurs in the adrenal medulla?
Pheochromocytoma
What in the world is Pheochromocytoma?
A tumor of the chromaffin cells - therefore more Epi and Norepi are produced - makes you have high blood pressure.
What are the 3 disorders of the Adrenal Cortex?
1. Cushing's syndrome
2. Addison's disease
3. Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia.
What causes Cushing's syndrome?
1. Therapeutic glucocorticoids causing high cortisol levels.
2. Hypothalamic, pituitary, or adrenal tumor
-In general: HIGH CORTISOL
what is the result of high cortisol seen in Cushing's?
-Moon face/buffalo hump
-fat re-distribution
-Immune suppression
-poor wound healing
-muscle wasting
-high blood glucose.
How does Addison's disease compare to Cushing's, pathologically?
Cushing = cortisol overproductn
Addison = ADRENAL insufficiency - cortisol AND aldosterone.
What causes addison's disease?
an autoimmune disorder where cortisol AND aldosterone are decreased; resulting ACTH increase causes pigmentation.
What are the symptoms of addison's disease?
-from low cortisol, inability to deal with stress, weak, fatigue.
-from low aldosterone, low blood volume, hypotensive - death.
-from high ACTH, hyperpigment.
What is the underlying problem in congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
An enzyme needed to synthesize the adrenal steroids is missing; The precursors of are shunted over to the ANDROGEN pathway.
What is the result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
-Cortisol/aldosterone are low
-Androgens (DHEA and androstenedione are high;
-women/children are masculinized
-men have low sperm counts
-addison symptoms too