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24 Cards in this Set

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IQ
The intelligence quotient. A numerical scale measuring level of intelligence. For example, to compute an IQ score, mental age is divided by chronological age, and multiplied by 100.
"g"
General intelligence/intellectual factor.
Qualitative differences
(in cognition) Diference in "kind"of "type of thought shown by a person.
Assimilation
Process during which a person modifies his or her external world to fit into the already existing cognitive schemas of the person.
Accommodation
Process during which a person modifies his or her cognitive schemas to conform with new information in the external world.
Equilibration
Process of reaching a balanced relationship between assimilation and accommodation
Reproductive assimilation
When a person initially tries to deal with new information by treating it as something he or she already knows.
Egocentrism
When the person is centered on his or her own cognitive structure/s and unable to differentiate between one's own point of view and the views of others; when there is more concern with the perspective of the subject than with the actual details of the object.
Disequilibration
Cognitive process that occurs when our cognitive schemas are not in an agreement with one another, when there is an imbalance between assimilation and accommodation.
Formal operational thought
Fourth stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, when a person attaing the ability to see that reality and his or her thoughts about reality are different, and when the person can generate and recognize hypotheses about reality.
INRC grouping
Cognitive structure that characterizes formal operations and implies that all solutions to a problem may be obtained through the application of four components: identity, negation, reciprocity, and correlation.
Identity transformation
Process of approaching a problem by recognizing the problem by recognizing the problem in terms of its singular attributes.
Negation operation
Process of approaching a problem by canceling the existence of the problem.
Reciprocal transformation
Process of approaching a problem by considering nd taking its opposite.
Correlative transformation
Process of thinking of all aspects of a problem by relating them to other problems.
Condition reasonging
Type of deductive reasoning, characterized by "if p, the q" statements.
Deductive reasoning
Type of reasoning that begins with a set of statements used to infer if another statement is valid.
Inductive reasoning
When reasoning inductively we use our observation and experiences to draw conclusions about the general truth of a particular statement.
Falsification strategies
Proving one's ideas by trying to identify information that would disconfirm these ideas.
Centration
In Piaget's theory, a focus n one's own point of view, which involves therefore a lack of balance between assimilation and accommodation.
Imaginary audience
When adolescents become preoccupied with self, they come to believe that others are as preoccupied with their appearance and behavior as they are.
Personal fabole
Belief that one is a unique, one-of-a-kind individual; the idea that one is a singular person having singular feelings and thoughts.
Social cognition
Thinking about interpersonal relationships and the social world.
Adolescent egocentrism
Term introduces by Elkind in 1967 to label problems in adolescents' thoughts; the belief that others are preoccupied with them nd that they are unique individuals.