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61 Cards in this Set

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selection
How youth develop, structure, and commit to their goals. Gives direction to development by directing and focusing resources on certain domains of functioning and preventing diffusion of resources.
Optimization
How youth acquire and refine the means to reach their goals. Describes process geared toward achieving higher levels of functioning.
Compensation
Investing additional resources or substituting or applying additional means, geared toward the maintenance of functioning when the pahtways youth follow to reach their goals fail.
Nature-nurture controversy
Debate about whether or how biology and/or environment provide the basis of human behavior and development.
Multiple levels of organization
Idea that development occurs as a consequence of relations among biology, person, social groups, culture, history, and other levels in the ecology of human development.
Developmental systems theories
Theories which stress that development occurs as a consequence of organized and mutually influential relations among different levels of organization (biology, society, culture, history).
Multivariate research/studies
Research involving several variables.
Longitudinal research/studies
Research composed of repeated observations.
Multilevel research/studies
Research focusing on biological, psychological, and social facets of a phenomenon.
Diversity
In develpment, systematic differences among individuals, groups, or institutions of society.
Interventions
Actions planned to reduce or to pervent problems or to promote positive development.
Applied developmental science
Field of science that focuses on development, diversity, and context to interrelate basic and applied knowledge. Knowledge is applied to promote policies and programs to enhance the life chances of youth.
Dynamic interation
Interaction characterized by two different variables simultaneously influencing one another. For example, biological variables influence an are influenced by contextual variables.
Plasticity
Potential for systematic change across life.
Monozygotic (MZ) twins
Twins developed from one fertilized egg that splits after conception. In contrast, dizygotic (DZ) twins develop from separate fertilized eggs.
Zygote
fertilized egg
genotype
complement of genes transmitted to people at conception by the union of the sperm and ovum.
meiosis
process of divition resultiong in formation of sex cells, sperm, and ova.
Down syndrome
genetic anomaly characterized by extra chromosome in the 21st pair of chromosomes.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Illness characterized by body's inability to metabolize fatty substances due to lack of a particular digestive enzyme.
Ecological validity
A theory or an observation that reflects accurately real-life situations.
Ontogeny
Development, or life course, of an individual organism.
Recapitulation
Developmental changes within the human life cycle that are the hypothetical repetition of the sequence of changes the species followed during evolution.
Ecological milieu
Particular environmental setting of a species/individual.
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a species.
Drive state
energizer of behavior that exists within the individual.
Equilibration
Individual's attempt to maintain cognitive balance between existing cognitive structures and what is encountered in the environment. Maintained through continuous process of assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation
Piagetian term to define process of changing external stimulation to fit already existing knowledge. With accommodation, part of the equilibration process.
Sensorimotor stage
First stage of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. The child develops the knowledge that external stimulation continues to exist even when not sensed by the person.
Preoperational stage
Second stage of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. The child can represent mentally absent objects and cn use symbols to represent objects.
Reversibility
Ability to know that by reversing one's actions on an object one can return the object to its original state.
Concrete operational stage
Third stage of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. The child is capable of internaized, reversible actions.
Operation
Piagetian term referring to the internalized actions that are mentally reversible.
Formal operational stage
Fourth stage of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. Most representative of adolescents and adults in modern Western society. The person is capable of thinking counterfactually and hypothetically. Can think of all possible combination of elements of a problem to find a solution.
Egocentrism
Cognitive focus on the self. Egocentrism changes a the child moves throughout Piagetian stages.
Imaginar audience
Adolescent's belief that others are as preoccupied with the object of their own thoughts as they are
Personal fable
Due to attention of the imaginary audience, adolescents come to believe that ehy are special and/or unique.
Preconventional morality
First leve of moral development as defined by Kohlberg. The individual is bound by issues of punishment and obedience and naive and egoistic reasoning.
Conventional morality
Second level of moral development as defined by Kohlberg. The individual is bound by issues of the good person orientation and is concerned with upholding social order and the institutional maintenance of morality.
Postconventional morality
Third level of moral development as defined by Kohlberg. The individual is concerned with legalistic reasoning oriented around principles and conscience.
Ecology
Real-world setting(s) of the individual and/or species.
Microsystem
As defined by Bronfenbrenner, the first of several interrelated systems whose composition defines the ecology of human development. Composed of relations between the developing person and the environment in the immediate setting within which the person exists.
Mesosytem
As defined by Bronfenbrenner, the second of several interrelated systems whose composition defines the ecology of human development. Composed of interrelations among the major settings containing the individual, the developing person at a particular point in his or her life.
Exosystem
As defined by Bronfenbrenner, the third of several interrelated systems whose composition defines the ecology of human development. The formal and informal social structures that do not themselves contain the developing person but impinge on the setting within which the person exists.
Macrosystem
As defined by Bronfenbrenner, the fourth of several interrelated systems whose composition defines the ecology of human development. Composed of cultural values and beliefs and historical events that affect the other ecological systems.
Loss-based selection
When compensatory efforts fail or their costs outweigh their gains, individuals restructure their goal hierarchy. lower their standards, or look for new goals.
Weak interaction theory
Places primary stress on one source (usually nature) as the determinant of the sequence and character of development.
Moderate interaction theory
Places equal stress on the influence of both nature and nurture but sees the two sources as independent of each other.
Strong interaction theory
Sees nature and nurture as reciprocally related and inextricably fused in all development.
Retrospection
Construction the past through memories. A techniue used by Freud.
Reality principle
Ego develops only to deal with reality, to allow the person to adjust to demands of real world and hence survive.
Secondary process
Functions that enable ego to adjust to and deal with reality.
Psychosocial devlopment
Emphasizes the role of the ego and, specifically , the role of society in determining what the ego must do to fulfill its function of adapting to the demand of reality
Critical period
Time in life when particular developments must occur if development is to proceed normally.
Oral sensory stage
Stage 1 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing a sense of basic trust versus misturst toward one's world.
Anal musculature stage
Stage 2 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing toward a sense of autonomy versus a sense of shame and doubt.
Genital locomotor stage
Stage 3 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing toward a sense of initiative versus guilt.
Latency
Stage 4 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing toward a sense of industry versus inferiority.
Puberty and adolescence
Stage 5 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing toward a sense of identity versus role confusion.
Young adulthood
Stage 6 of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Involves a crisis between developing toward a sense of intimacy versus isolation.
Adulthood
Stage 7 of Erikson's psychosocial threoy. Involves a crisis between developing a sense of generativity versus stagnation.