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21 Cards in this Set

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describe the replication cycle of poxvirus
rupture of outer membrane exposes the inner membrane which is fusable, fusion with PM, capsid in the cytoplasm, wi capsid early txn has began, early mRNA encodes DNA pol, intermediate txn factors, and proteins for immune evasion and capsid uncoating. uncoating then intermediate txn which encodes late txn factors, and late txn encodes for structural proteins, everything happens in the cytoplasm, then envelopement probly in the ER, then release
major pathogen of poxvirus?
variola AKA small pox, "erradicated"
entry and spread of variola?
aerosal droplets, oral macs, day 3 in lymph and blood, one wk regional and draining lymph nodes, high fever, to liver, spleen, nodes, eye, skin, mucous, 2 wks oropharyngeal enanthem (contagious), day 16 skin exanthem
complications of vaccination?
gangrenosa in CMI compromised, eczema, rash, ocular vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis (fatal), possible association with development of myocarditis, pericarditis, heart attack (seen in recent military vaccinations)
lab dx of variola?
EM, PCR, ELISA
treatment off variola?
scarce, vaccination wi 4 days of exposure, cidovir in emergencies (used in CMV, destroys a glycoprotein needed for exit from the cell), experimental ST246, resistance will develop quickly to these drugs
clinical differences in chickenpox versus small pox?
fever with rash, pocks in several stages, rapid development, more pocks in core of body, no pocks on palms and soles, death is very uncommon
describe molluscum contagiosum
poxvirus member that is a human pathogen, grow waxy papules AKA water warts (squeeze white gunk out of them), seen on lower ab, pubic area, inner thighs, genitals, in adults it is an STD, mistaken for HSV-2, swimming pool outbreaks in children, spontaneous regression after 2 to 12 mos
describe monkey pox (whitepox)
zoonosis, Africa from squirrels or monkeys, some secondary human to human transmission, like smallpox clinically with 11% mortality, has been introduced in US via asn African rodent
describe tanapox virus
zoonosis, monkey, causes epidemics in Kenya, prodrome followed by smallpox like skin lesions
what are the poxvirus zoonoses that are rare?
yaba monkey tumor virus (animal handlers get histocytomas), cowpox, ORF (sheep) and pseudocowpox (cattle)
adenovirus structure?
non enveloped, icos, fibers from penton base, serotypes defined by hexon/penton base, linear ds DNA, covalently attached to TP (terminal protein)
adenovirus lifecycle review?
fibers mediate attachment to host cell via CAR receptor, endocytosis, uncoating, capsid to the nucleus, DNA in through the nuclear pore, txn and DNA replication, early tsln and late tsln, assembly in the nucleus, virus is released causing cell to lyse
describe adenovirus entry and spread
spread via respiratory droplets, mouth, nasopharynx, ocular conjunctiva are first sites of infection, primary infection of non ciliated resp epi, can go to lungs and GI, bladder infection indicates viremia, persistence (chronic shedding of it in asymptos), latency in adenoid and lymphoid cells
epi of adenovirus.
resistant to GI tract and drying and weak chlorine treatment, Sx like resp tract infection, transmission via resp droplets, feces, fomites, close contact, swimming pools, once infected with a serotype, immune to reinfection, WW, endemic epidemic sporadic, severe infections in immunocompros
time course of adeno resp infections?
up to 9 day incubation, contagious at day 4, mild Sx at first, day 9, virus in stool, fever and diarrhea, day 11 may get viremia, day 12 specefic antibody may help clear
describe the respiratory disease caused by adenovirus.
acute febril pharyngitis and pharyngoconjunctivitis. 5% of acute respiratory disease in children. Pneumonia if goes to lungs, estimated 10% of all causes of childhood pneumonia are induced by adenovirus infection. ARD seen in military training camps when they are fatigued
describe the eye infections caused by adenovirus.
sporadic acute follicular conjunctivitis (AFC). Most common eye infection, bulbar or palpebral preauricular lymphadenopathy, incubation period of 6 to 9 days, sporadic or from contact groups like kids in the pool. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis has higher morbidity, potential for chronic/permanent visual impairment, ocular trauma predisposes the eye to infection
besides respiratory and eye infections of adenovirus, describe the other types of infections that can occur
GI - 40,41 adenovirus strain, diarrhea (2nd to rotavirus as major cause for infantile diarrhea). Acute hemorrhagic cystitis seen in male kids, urinary frequency, bladder pain, hematuria. Myocarditis: role of adenovirus is unclear. Meningoencephalitis. if adenovirus is seen in meningoenceph or myocarditis, they are probly not the causes of these diseases
diagnosis of adenovirus.
complement fixation assay (hexon protein as antigen) and PCR
treatment and control of adenovirus?
symptomatic and supportive care, vaccine is live non attenuated virus in tablets, used in military, problem is the virus is shed from the GI tract and can infect unimmunized. Vaccine currently discontinued due to production problems