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89 Cards in this Set

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What is the process when bacterial cells incorporate DNA from dead bacterial cells?
Transformation
What process is the one where DNA makes copies of itself?
Replication
What is the manufacture of proteins?
Protein Synthesis
What form of RNA carries the genetic instructions for protein production from the nucleus to ribosomes?
Messenger RNA
What form of RNA brings the right amino acids to the ribosome during protein production?
Transfer RNA
What type of RNA is part of the structure or ribosomes?
Ribosomal RNA
What's the tranfer of info from DNA to a strand of DNA called?
Transcription
What has 3 nitrogenous bases in RNA or DNA that codes for amino acids?
Codon
What is the assembly of a protein from the code provided by mRNA called?
Translation
What's the three bases pair codon that binds to be a complementary piece of mRNA during protein synthesis?
Anticodon
A group of genes with related functions is called?
An operon
What gene is in an operon that codes for protein production?
Structural Gene
What gene is one that promotes the movement of RNA polyremase onto the structural genes of an operon?
Promoter gene
What's the region of the DNA that acts as an on/off switch for an operon
operator?
What part of a gene continually makes a protein?
Regulator
What's an intervening sequence of RNA that isn't part of the code for a protein called?
Intron
What's the short sequence of DNA that isnt part of a code for a protein?
Exon
What is a change in the sequence of nucleotides within a gene called?
Gene mutation
What's the replacement of a single base pair in a gene called?
Point mutation
What's an enviromental factor that could cause genetic mutations called?
Mutagen
the process where bacteria are changed is called?
bacterial transformation
genetic material or certain viruses that infect and destroy are?
phages or bacteriophages
what bacteria attaches to a bacteriums surface and injects material into the cell and causes the substance to take over the cell?
bacteriphages or phages
In the cells of all organisms amounts of A & T and G & C are always is equal is who's rule?
Chargaffs rule
What information about the structure of DNA was provided by X-ray Crystallography?
The x shape of a helix
Who were the men that are credited with discovering the structure of DNA
Watson and Crick
Who first discovered DNA
Fredric Mischer
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 or 23
What is the backbone of DNA made out of?
nucleotides
what are the three parts of nucleotides?
Phosphate,sugar,and nitrogen bases
What's an intervening sequence of RNA that isn't part of the code for a protein called?
Intron
What's the short sequence of DNA that isnt part of a code for a protein?
Exon
What is a change in the sequence of nucleotides within a gene called?
Gene mutation
What's the replacement of a single base pair in a gene called?
Point mutation
What's an enviromental factor that could cause genetic mutations called?
Mutagen
the process where bacteria are changed is called?
bacterial transformation
genetic material or certain viruses that infect and destroy are?
phages or bacteriophages
what bacteria attaches to a bacteriums surface and injects material into the cell and causes the substance to take over the cell?
bacteriphages or phages
In the cells of all organisms amounts of A & T and G & C are always is equal is who's rule?
Chargaffs rule
What information about the structure of DNA was provided by X-ray Crystallography?
The x shape of a helix
Who were the men that are credited with discovering the structure of DNA
Watson and Crick
Who first discovered DNA
Fredric Mischer
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 or 23
What is the backbone of DNA made out of?
nucleotides
what are the three parts of nucleotides?
Phosphate,sugar,and nitrogen bases
What nitrogenous base contains A & G
Purines
What nitrogenous base contains T & C
Pyridimines
What does C turn into when DNA becomes RNA
U
How does DNA make RNA?
Transcription
The final code for making protein is
Messenger RNA
What delievers the correct amino acids to the anticodon for mRNA
Transfer RNA
What codes for making ribosomes?
Ribosomal RNA
When a DNA can absorb DNA from an outside source it's called
transformation
Muscles hormones enzymes & cell structures are all what?
Protein Products
What disease causes mucus in lungs and occurs mainly in caucasians?
Cystic fibrosis
What disease attacks red blood cells and occurs mainly in African Americans?
Sickle Cell Anemia
What disease attacks the nervous system and occurs mainly in Jewish people?
Tay-Sachs Disease
What disease causes poor brain development during childhood?
Phenylketonuria
What disease causes failure of blood to clot and is sex linked?
Hemophilia
What disease causes older people to loose their memory?
Huntington Disease
What disease causes the deterioation of mucles?
Muscular Dystrophy
If dna is coiled tightly and wont express itself it's called
DNA coiling
What reads the triple codon during transcription
ribosome
What determines what protein is produced from amino acids?
type order and sequence
In transcription what is a recognition site for the RNA?
promoter gene
When enough amino acids are made during gene expression what do they do?
Line up with the repressor
When the amino acids line up with the repressor during gene expression what turns off?
The operator
What does the operator do when the amino acids are used up?
turns on
deletion duplication inversion and translocation are what type of mutation?
chromosome
what can stimulate a gene
hormones and enviromental factors
What is the begining amino acid?
AUG(Methionine)
Amino acids hold what together?
Peptides
Transformation is significant because
It picks up new genes to adapt and evolve
Dna make what?
mRNA
How does DNA make mRNA?
transcription
mRNA consists of
triple codons
What reads triple codons and orders tRNA?
ribosomes
tRNA has what?
the anticodon to mRNA
the anticodon to mRNA brings what to the specific protein?
amino acids
the anticodon to mrna tbrings the correct amino acid to link up and form a specific what?
protein
how many different amino acids are there?
20
what do protein regulators do?
regulate the operator
deletion and addition are what type of mutation?
frameshift mutation
during translation each triple codon on the mrna codes for a(an) what?
amino acid
mrna is read by what?
a ribosome
when do gene mutations most often occur?
during DNA replication
What are some results of gene mutations
disorders in the orgainism's metabolism,structure,or death
if a point mutation occurs what may or may not be correctly added to a protein?
amino acids
where do gene mutations occur on DNA?
in genes that control growth and differentiation