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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
involves reproductive success
greater chance egg will be fertilized
engertically expensive to search for other female
offspring survival with mate assistance
What are the advantages to a female who engages extra-pair copulation?
outside the pair-bond, females gain resources, get assistance with offspring,and ensure that there is enough sperm to fertilize the egg, also genetic variability and reduce the effects of imbreeding
gain stuff
what is the hypothesis of polygyny in females?
Utilizes resources of a male with a high quality territory
Sucessful rearing of offspring in a good territory.
Sexy son hypothesis"good genes" by attractive features from the male.
Cooperative hunting and defense. Costly to leave to persue a monogamous relationship
coop hunting,
sexy son
What are three types of polygyny and examples?
1.female defense polygyny-males defend harems-elephant seals, horses
2.Resource defense polygyny-males defend resources-reed warblers,red-winged black bird.
3.Lek polygyny-males display at "symbolic" territories-hammerhead bats, prairie chickens.
what is an example of a polyandrous animal? What is the different about this animals in terms of sexual selection?
1. Jacunas, sandpipers,pipe fish
2. Sexual selection is reversed in this animal. The males are the chosey ones
2. Reversal
give example of sibling rivarly in a non-human animal
siblings compete for food resources from their parent "begging"
reddest gape in a nestling will receive more food
food competition
Is external fertilization more often associated with male or female care? Present two hypothesis...
greater certainty of paternity, males usually release sperm after females release eggs, males will defend territories-male care
what kind of paternal care is observed in birds?
Biparental care- both parents incubate eggs and feed offspring
Describe brood parasitism
and example of it
birds of honeyguides, cuckoos and cowbirds lay their eggs in other unrelated birds. The host birds provide parental care
What is the cost related to social groups?
competition for mates,food and nesting sites
Conspicuous to predators
Energy spent maintaining social bonds
Exposure to parasites and disease
Greater risk of providing care to another's offspring
mixed babies
what are the benefits of a social groups?
Increased vigilance, mobbing dilution effect, confusion effect
Cooperative or helping behavior
Social learning and information sharing
Name three ways that rank in a dominance hierarchy can be established.
Confrontation(elephant seals) followed by experience (winners win losers lose-blue footed boobys
Associations with high ranking individuals ranking (dark-eyes juncos)
Status of parents or birthright
(rhesus monkeys}
Dominance hierarchy =greater access to resources and mates
Advantages to stability related to higher overall reproductive sucess, reduction of confrontations and potential injury